An evaluation of two bonding questionnaires: A comparison of the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire in a sample of primiparous mothers

Division of Clinical Psychology, School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Archives of Women s Mental Health (Impact Factor: 2.16). 02/2007; 10(4):171-5. DOI: 10.1007/s00737-007-0191-y
Source: PubMed


The emotions and attitudes of mothers towards their infants are crucial for the child's well-being and development. Some mothers experience a delay in the onset of maternal affection after childbirth and occasionally a longer lasting failure to bond will ensue. Little is known about the precise prevalence of these difficulties, how they relate to maternal mental health, how they develop over time and what their biological and psychosocial correlates are. In research studies the mother-infant relationship has traditionally been assessed using observational methods but these are time consuming and not suited for screening in clinical practice. Two self-rating instruments have recently been developed to assess maternal bonding. Both can be used in large samples of recently delivered mothers including those suspected to be at high risk of bonding disorders. In this study, the psychometric properties of the 8-item Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIB) and the 25-item screening questionnaire for mother-infant bonding disorders, namely the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ), were examined in a sample of first-time mothers in order to establish their reliability and validity. Ninety-six women completed the MIB, PBQ and the Kennerley Blues Scale on day 2-4 postpartum. Both bonding instruments demonstrated acceptable reliability and reasonable validity, with the exception of the PBQ subscale of risk of abuse.

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    • "The MIBS was soon after modified by Kumar's colleague Marks, which resulted in the addition of two adjectives (possessive and scared or panicky) for a total of ten items [18]. Although both the PBQ and the MIBS measure the spectrum of bonding disorders and have been found to be moderately associated with each other [19] [20], there are some conceptual differences between them. One difference was that Brockington included 'infant-focused anxiety', which was a subscale of the PBQ, as a criterion of bonding disorders . "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) to gather data on Japanese mothers for comparison with other cultures and to examine the scale structure of the PBQ among Japanese mothers. We administered the PBQ to a cross-section of 244 mothers 4weeks after delivery and again 2weeks later to 199 mothers as a retest to examine reliability. We used exploratory factor analysis to evaluate the factor structure of the PBQ. Correlations with the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS), the Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and sociodemographic variables were calculated for validation. The 14-item version of the PBQ extracted by exploratory analysis consisted of four factors: 'impaired bonding', 'rejection and anger', 'anxiety about care', and 'lack of affection'. We found significant correlations of the total scores of the PBQ and the 14-item version of the PBQ positively with the MIBS and negatively with the MAI. Moderate significant correlations with total scores were also found with the EPDS. Total scores for primiparous and depressed mothers were higher than those for multiparous mothers and mothers without depression. The results of this study demonstrated the reliability and validity of the PBQ and the 14-item version of the PBQ in Japanese mothers 4weeks after delivery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Psychosomatic Research 02/2015; 79(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.02.008 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    • "This eightitem scale is intended to assess the mother's feelings of attachment to her infant. It has an internal reliability of 0.66 and its validity has been established in postpartum samples with respect to other available bonding instruments (Wittkowski et al. 2007). Other measures administered to this sample for concurrent studies on stress, coping, and personality factors with respect to PPD were not included in this analysis (our unpublished data). "
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    ABSTRACT: The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a finding that merits further study.
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 08/2014; 18(2). DOI:10.1007/s00737-014-0446-3 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    • "The PBQ median was 13.5 (range ¼0–73), which was higher compared to previous studies of mothers with PPD (mean ¼10.46, SD¼7.43) (Moehler et al., 2006) and with no depression (median¼7, range¼0–40) (Wittkowski et al., 2007). The range of PBQ scores was indicative of considerable variation in maternal responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: to examine perceptions of mothers experiencing postpartum depression utilising the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R), to explore relationships between illness perceptions, depression severity and perceptions of maternal bonding, and to assess the psychometric properties within this population. DESIGN: longitudinal correlational design. SETTING: North West of England, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 43 mothers, who screened positive for postpartum depression (mean age 29.36 years) with babies whose mean age was 4 months. METHODS: participants were recruited through health services. Participants completed the IPQ-R and measures of depression severity and maternal bonding. Illness perceptions and depression severity were assessed at 2 time points, 4 weeks apart. FINDINGS: mothers endorsed IPQ-R subscales of cyclical timeline, consequences, emotional representations, treatment and personal control. IPQ-R subscale scores and depression severity correlated significantly at Time 1. Initial IPQ-R subscale scores, however, were not associated with and accounted for little variation in depression severity at Time 2. IPQ-R identity and consequence subscales positively correlated with perceived bonding difficulties. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: the IPQ-R was shown to be a reliable measure of illness perceptions in mothers experiencing postpartum depression. The maternal illness perceptions endorsed in this study have implications for clinical practice. Interventions aimed at developing a more coherent understanding of depression may enhance beliefs of personal control over symptoms, reduce the number of perceived symptoms and associated emotional distress. Educating mothers regarding the benefits of interventions may be important in increasing the number of mothers accessing support for postpartum depression.
    Midwifery 08/2012; 29(7). DOI:10.1016/j.midw.2012.06.020 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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