Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: Consequences and perspectives

Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 5.31). 10/2007; 60(3):461-3. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkm241
Source: PubMed


A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV-infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family. Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated by non-HIV-related conditions that may have a worse prognosis and therefore become more important than HIV-related conditions. Despite the improvements in antiretroviral therapy, there is still an excess mortality among HIV patients, which appears to be only partially attributable to immunodeficiency, with lifestyle factors potentially playing a pronounced role. Consequently, an effort to further increase survival must target risk factors for both HIV-related and -unrelated mortality. The continuation of the positive trend may be achieved by increased HIV testing, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, improved drug adherence, prevention and treatment of HIV-unrelated co-morbidity and collaboration with other medical specialists to treat an ageing co-morbidity-acquiring HIV population.

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Available from: Nicolai Lohse, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "The effectiveness of HAART has globally improved and has increased life expectancy enormously over the last 15 years [176]. However, a significant gap still exists; life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals is still about two thirds of that expected in the non-infected general population. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infections with HIV represent a great challenge for the development of strategies for an effective cure. The spectrum of diseases associated with HIV ranges from opportunistic infections and cancers to systemic physiological disorders like encephalopathy and neurocognitive impairment. A major progress in controlling HIV infection has been achieved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, HAART does neither eliminate the virus reservoirs in form of latently infected cells nor does it completely reconstitute immune reactivity and physiological status. Furthermore, the failure of the STEP vaccine trial and the only marginal efficacies of the RV144 trial together suggest that the causal relationships between the complex sets of viral and immunological processes that contribute to protection or disease pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we provide an up-to-date overview of HIV-host interactions at the cellular, the immune system and the neuroendocrine systems level. Only by integrating this multi-level knowledge one will be able to handle the systems complexity and develop new methodologies of analysis and prediction for a functional restoration of the immune system and the health of the infected host.
    International Reviews Of Immunology 04/2013; 32(3). DOI:10.3109/08830185.2013.779375 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "This seemingly paradoxical finding has been shown in several studies on HIV therapy. Mortality appears to be highest during the first year after initiation of ART (Lohse et al., 2007; Moore and Chaisson, 1999). Several theories have been postulated to try to explain these observations. "
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    ABSTRACT: The study is aimed at identifying clinical, demographic and behavioral factors, including participation in HIV care, associated with the utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART), among hard-to-reach HIV-positive individuals in Atlanta, GA. The study included 184 HIV-positive participants of the Infectious Disease Program (IDP) of the Grady Health System between February 1999 to March 2001. Individuals were categorized as regular attendees (those who consistently kept their outpatient appointments, n = 65), irregular (those who inconsistently kept their appointments, n = 60) or non-attendees (those who failed routinely to keep their appointments, n = 59). Univariate and multivariate analyses using log-binomial regression modeling were done. HIV-infected individuals who consistently kept their appointments at the IDP received ART at a frequency (86%) that is twice that of those who missed some appointments (42%) and four times that of those who routinely failed to keep appointments (20%). In multivariate analysis, category of clinic attendance (regular, irregular or non-attendee) was the only risk factor independently associated with utilization of ART: Regular attendees (RR = 3.59, 95% CI 2.12 to 6.08) and irregular attendees (RR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.28 to 4.01) compared to non-attendees. The positive association between routine clinic attendance and use of antiretroviral therapy observed in this study should encourage the development of strategies to retain patients in outpatient HIV care.
    03/2011; 3(3):63-70.
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    • "For example, in the United States, mortality rates declined abruptly in 1994/1995, but remained stable from 1998 onwards, at approximately 7 deaths/100,000 population [20], [21]. In countries where HIV prevalence is well defined and thus could be used as the denominator, a steady increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to conditions that generally are not attributed to HIV infection, such as CVD and DM [5], [10]–[14], has been reported. We were not able to perform similar analyses, given the absence of reliable estimates of HIV prevalence in most regions of Brazil. "
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    ABSTRACT: In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection in Brazil between 1999 and 2004. Odds ratios were used to compare causes of death in individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on any field of the death certificate with those who did not. Logistic regression models were fitted with generalized estimating equations to account for spatial correlation; co-variables were added to the models to control for potential confounding. Of 5,856,056 deaths reported in Brazil between 1999 and 2004 67,249 (1.15%) had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate and non-HIV-related conditions were listed on 16.3% in 1999, increasing to 24.1% by 2004 (p<0.001). The adjusted average yearly increases were 8% and 0.8% for CVD (p<0.001), and 12% and 2.8% for DM (p<0.001), for those who had and did not have HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate, respectively. Similar results were found for these conditions as underlying causes of death. In Brazil between 1999 and 2004 conditions usually considered not to be related to HIV-infection appeared to become more likely causes of death over time than reported causes of death among individuals who had HIV/AIDS listed on the death certificate than in those who did not. This observation has important programmatic implications for developing countries that are scaling-up access to antiretroviral therapy.
    PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(1):e1531. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0001531 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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