Prenatal infectious and nutritional factors and risk of adult schizophrenia.
ABSTRACT Schizophrenia is a severely disabling psychiatric disorder. Despite a considerable amount of research on the underpinnings of the disorder, its etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown. In utero exposures, including infection and nutritional deficiencies, are emerging important risk factors for schizophrenia, in which neurodevelopmental influences probably play an important role. Our group and others have embarked on investigations aimed at identifying these risk factors and examining the mechanisms by which they increase vulnerability to this disorder. This work has the potential to lead to strategies aimed at preventing this disorder and to reveal new molecular targets for pharmacotherapeutic intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous reports have brought attention to the potential role of cytokines in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine whether polymorphisms of IL-2, IL-6, and TNFα genes are risk factors for development of paranoid schizophrenia in a Polish population. Promoter polymorphisms of IL-6 (rs1800795), TNFα (rs1800629), and IL-2 (rs2069762) genes in patients (N=115) and controls (N=135) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and AS-PCR methods, respectively. Genotype TT and allele T for IL-2 polymorphism, and genotype AA and allele A for TNFα polymorphism were found to be significantly associated with paranoid schizophrenia. Similarly, haplotypes CTA and GTA increased the risk (4.4 times and 5.9 times, respectively) of schizophrenia. To reveal associations between Positive and Negative Symptom Scale subscales and age at onset of schizophrenia, the authors used a novel method called Grade Correspondence Analysis. This analysis revealed that patients with early age at onset have higher scores on the Negative and General subscales of PANSS, and, in that group of patients, haplotype CTA was the most represented. As far as is known, this analysis was used for the first time with reference to genetic data.The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences 03/2013; 25(1):72-82. DOI:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12020021 · 2.34 Impact Factor