Article

Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the adolescent cerebral cortex.

Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 7.83). 05/2008; 33(5):1019-27. DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301484
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smoking during pregnancy is associated with long-term consequences on offspring behavior. We measured thickness of the cerebral cortex using magnetic resonance images obtained in 155 adolescents exposed in utero to maternal smoking and compared them with 159 non-exposed subjects matched by maternal education. Orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and parahippocampal cortices were thinner in exposed, as compared with non-exposed, individuals; these differences were more pronounced in female adolescents. In exposed females, the thickness of the orbitofrontal cortex correlated negatively with a self-rated assessment of caring, one of the components of a model of positive youth development. These findings provide evidence of the long-term impact of prenatal environment on a neural substrate of cognition and social behavior.

0 Followers
 · 
122 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and its parental arm. The overarching goal of this effort is to develop trans-generational models of developmental cascades contributing to the emergence of common chronic disorders, such as depression, addictions, dementia and cardio-metabolic diseases. Over the past 10 years, we have acquired detailed brain and cardio-metabolic phenotypes, and genome-wide genotypes, in 1029 adolescents recruited in a population with a known genetic founder effect. At present, we are extending this dataset to acquire comparable phenotypes and genotypes in the biological parents of these individuals. After providing conceptual background for this work (transactions across time, systems and organs), we describe briefly the tools employed in the adolescent arm of this cohort and highlight some of the initial accomplishments. We then outline in detail the phenotyping protocol used to acquire comparable data in the parents.
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience 10/2014; 11. DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2014.10.003 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age=11.3years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradigm. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Potential confounders were documented from a maternal interview, and exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. PCSE was not related to behavioral performance on this simple response inhibition task. Nevertheless, this exposure was associated with smaller amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components elicited by No-go stimuli, suggesting an impairment in the neural processes underlying response inhibition. Amplitude of the No-go P3 component was also inversely associated with behavioral measures of externalizing problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the classroom. This study is the first to report neurophysiological evidence of impaired response inhibition in school-aged children exposed to tobacco smoke in utero. Effects were found on ERP components associated with conflict processing and inhibition of a prepotent response, indicating neurophysiological deficits that may play a critical role in the attention and behavior problems observed in children with PCSE.
    Neurotoxicology and Teratology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ntt.2014.06.003 · 3.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on verbal working memory were investigated in young adults. Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood. This allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.08.006 · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
24 Downloads
Available from
Jun 30, 2014