Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and the Adolescent Cerebral Cortex

Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 7.05). 05/2008; 33(5):1019-27. DOI: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301484
Source: PubMed


Smoking during pregnancy is associated with long-term consequences on offspring behavior. We measured thickness of the cerebral cortex using magnetic resonance images obtained in 155 adolescents exposed in utero to maternal smoking and compared them with 159 non-exposed subjects matched by maternal education. Orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and parahippocampal cortices were thinner in exposed, as compared with non-exposed, individuals; these differences were more pronounced in female adolescents. In exposed females, the thickness of the orbitofrontal cortex correlated negatively with a self-rated assessment of caring, one of the components of a model of positive youth development. These findings provide evidence of the long-term impact of prenatal environment on a neural substrate of cognition and social behavior.

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Available from: Bruce Pike, Jun 30, 2014
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    • "2008; Toro et al. 2008). Third, regarding our ARND sample, we found they differed significantly from controls in IQ and were much more likely to have comorbidities such as ADHD that are associated with cortical abnormalities (Fernández-Jaén et al. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that individuals exposed to alcohol in utero have reduced cortical grey matter volumes. However, the candidate determinants of these reductions, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), have not been investigated exclusively in alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), the most prevalent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder subgroup that lacks the characteristic facial dysmorphology. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 88 participants (8-16 years), 36 diagnosed with ARND and 52 typically developing controls. Scans were submitted to the CIVET pipeline (version 1.1.10). Deformable models were used to construct the inner white matter surfaces and pial surfaces from which CT and SA measures were derived. Group differences in cortical volume, CT, and SA were computed using a general linear model covaried for age, sex, and handedness. Global cortical volume reductions in ARND did not reflect CT, which did not differ between groups. Instead, volume decreases were consistent with global SA reductions in bilateral frontal and temporal as well as right occipital regions. Local reductions in SA were observed in the right superior temporal gyrus and the right occipital-temporal region. Results suggest that in ARND, prenatal alcohol exposure perturbs global SA to a greater degree than CT, particularly in the right temporal lobe.
    Brain and Behavior 03/2014; 4(1):41-50. DOI:10.1002/brb3.191 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Although smoking cigarettes is associated with exposure to approximately 4000 chemicals (Rose, 2006), nicotine is the primary psychoactive ingredient and it is well established that nicotine easily crosses the placental and the blood–brain barrier (Luck et al., 1985). In addition, research has demonstrated that prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure is associated with long-term changes in neuroanatomy (Muhammad et al., 2012; Mychasiuk et al., 2013b), neurotransmitter function (Slotkin et al., 2006), and cortical organization (Toro et al., 2008). This early reorganization of cortical substrates may contribute to the negative outcomes often associated with PN exposure, such as learning and memory deficits, hyperactivity, and conduct disorders (Button et al., 2007; Gatzke-Kopp and Beauchaine, 2007; Sobrian et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to both drugs of abuse and environmental enrichment (EE), are widely studied experiences that induce large changes in dendritic morphology and synaptic connectivity. As there is an abundance of literature using EE as a treatment strategy for drug addiction, we sought to determine if EE could remediate the effects of prenatal nicotine (PN) exposure. Using Golgi-cox staining, we examined eighteen neuroanatomical parameters in four brain regions (mPFC, OFC, NAc, & Par1) of Long Evans rats. EE in adolescence dramatically altered structural plasticity in the male and female brain, modifying 60% of parameters investigated. EE normalized three parameters (OFC spine density & dendritic branching and mPFC dendritic branching) in male offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally, but did not remediate any measures in female offspring. PN exposure interfered with adolescent EE induced changes in five neuroanatomical measurements (Par1 spine density and dendritic branching in both male and female offspring, and mPFC spine density in male offspring). And in four neuroanatomical parameters examined, PN exposure and EE combined to produce additive effects (OFC spine density in females and mPFC dendritic length (apical and basilar) and branching in males). Despite demonstrated efficacy in reversing drug addiction, EE was not able to reverse many of the PN induced changes in neuronal morphology, indicating that modifications in neural circuitry generated in the prenatal period may be more resistant to change than those generated in the adult brain. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Synapse 02/2014; 68(7). DOI:10.1002/syn.21737 · 2.13 Impact Factor
    • "Whereas foreign compounds (Toro et al., 2008) and maternal stress hormones (Weinstock, 2008) can both have profound effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring, so can environmental conditions. Avian embryonic development is affected by sound (Gottlieb , 1976; Höchel et al., 2002), temperature (Oviedo- Rondón et al., 2008), oxygen concentrations (Oviedo- Rondón et al., 2008), humidity (Bolin and Burggren, 2005), and light (Rogers, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Providing light during incubation has been shown to decrease bilateral physical asymmetry of broilers posthatch, which may indicate that early light stimulation reduces later stress susceptibility. This experiment evaluated the effects of lighting during embryogenesis on other measures of stress responsiveness in broilers. Cobb 500 eggs (n = 1,404) were incubated under 0L:24D, 1L:23D, 6L:18D, or 12L:12D; the light level was 550 lx. The broilers were then raised in floor pens under a 12L:12D lighting regimen, and various stress parameters were measured during wk 3 to 6 of age. There was an effect of incubation lighting regimen on posthatch stress responses. Following 1 h of crating, the change in corticosterone (CORT) concentration was less in the 12L:12D (-0.06 ng/mL, P < 0.05) treatment than all other treatments (pooled mean = 0.24 ng/mL); however, there were no treatment differences in CORT response to adrenocorticotropic hormone administration (pooled mean pre- vs. 1 h postadministration = 17.5 ng/mL, P > 0.05). Anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin titers were higher in the 12L:12D birds (92,395 units/mL; P < 0.05) than all other treatments (pooled mean = 68,407 units/mL) on d 1 postcrating. Additionally, composite asymmetry scores were lower in the 12L:12D treatment (0.92 mm) than all other treatments (pooled mean = 1.14 mm, P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that providing 12 h of light per day during incubation can reduce the stress susceptibility of broilers posthatch.
    Poultry Science 12/2013; 92(12):3103-8. DOI:10.3382/ps.2013-03434 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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