Prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of solid organ transplants: current approach and future challenges.

Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.03). 09/2007; 20(4):419-24. DOI: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32821f6026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cytomegalovirus infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients, in terms of cytomegalovirus disease itself and the associated outcomes of organ rejection and death. This review focuses on recent literature concerning prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in this population.
Two major strategies for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients - preemptive and prophylactic treatment - are reviewed. Both strategies result in a lower incidence of cytomegalovirus disease when compared to a 'wait and treat' approach, and are generally considered cost-effective. Neither prophylaxis nor preemption has yet been shown to be superior. Newer trials are also reviewed, which are beginning to evaluate protocols of preemption or prophylaxis representative of current practice, as well as to explore alternative dosing strategies, the benefits of cytomegalovirus immune globulin, and the potential benefit of a longer course of prophylaxis. Concerns for the selection of ganciclovir-resistant strains of cytomegalovirus are also addressed.
The consensus is that there is benefit for the treatment of solid-organ transplant patients with an antiviral agent before clinical evidence of cytomegalovirus disease. So far, there has been no demonstration of the superiority of prophylactic or preemptive regimens, nor has the exact nature and dosing of the oral antiviral agent of choice been established.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MEDICATION SAFETY Overlooked Renal Dosage Adjustments A retrospective analysis of 647 patients at hospital discharge com-pared required renal dosage adjust-ments to dosage actually prescribed. This study was conducted at VieCuri Medical Centre in Venlo, Netherlands. Patient demographics and renal function data were col-lected, and dosage adjustment needs were assessed via the pharmacy-supported discharge counseling ser-vice. The incidence of inappropriate dosing based on renal function was measured at hospital discharge. Thirty-seven percent of patients evaluated during the study period (237/647) had a creatinine clear-ance less than 51 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; dosage adjustment was warranted in 23.9% (411/1,718) of prescrip-tions. When dosage adjustment should have been performed, more than 40% of prescriptions (169/411; 41.1%) were inappropri-ate for renal function (9.8% of pre-scriptions overall; 169/1,718). Fur-thermore, 60.4% (102/169) of inappropriate prescriptions pos-sessed the potential for moderate or severe clinical consequences, as evaluated by a panel of two clinical pharmacologists and one nephrolo-gist. Study authors also noted a lack of standardized dosing guidelines for agents requiring renal dosage adjustment. The authors also sug-gested that augmenting medication systems by adding dynamic renal dosing alerts would improve moni-toring. Summary: A comparison of suggested renal dosing and actual dosing at hospital discharge revealed that appropriate prescribing may be overlooked. van Dijk EA, Drabbe NRG, Kruijtbosch M, De Smet PAGM. Drug dosage adjust-ments according to renal function at hos-pital discharge. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1254-1260.
    Hospital pharmacy 12/1122; 41. DOI:10.1310/hpj4311-937
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this epidemiological, prospective study were to describe the characteristics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in heart transplant (HT) recipients and to identify the variables that may influence the development of CMV viremia and CMV disease in these patients. HT recipients ≥18 years of age (n=199) were included in the study. Variables studied included CMV serostatus, immunosuppressive treatment, and administration of anti-CMV prophylaxis. The mean age of the population was 52 years, and 84% were males. Immunosuppressive regimens were administered as induction therapy to 92.5% of patients; 88.5% of patients received calcineurin inhibitors as maintenance therapy. Anti-CMV treatment was given to 59% of 199 patients as prophylaxis (70%), preemptive therapy (10%), or to treat CMV infection (20%). Overall, 43% of patients had at least 1 positive viremia test. No patient with a high-risk serostatus (donor+/recipient-) receiving prophylaxis developed CMV syndrome, and only 2.5% of 199 patients developed CMV invasive disease. Multivariate analysis showed that having a positive donor CMV serostatus was associated with an increased risk of developing CMV viremia (P<0.012), while use of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors was associated with a decreased risk (P=0.005). In a population of HT recipients, the CMV infection rate was similar to that seen in previous studies, but the progression to overt CMV disease was very low. Having a CMV-positive donor was identified as an independent risk factor for developing CMV viremia, while the use of mTOR inhibitors was protective against viremia.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 10/2010; 13(2):136-44. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00573.x · 1.98 Impact Factor