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    ABSTRACT: To further define the relative impact of immunotherapy and subsequent development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on survival in patients with relapsed acute leukaemia postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT), we performed a single-centre retrospective analysis of 32 actively treated patients between 2003 and 2011. A total of 13 patients were identified who were treated actively with cessation of immunosuppression ± Fludarabine, Cytarabine, G-CSF (FLAG) induction, but no donor leucocyte infusion (DLI) (non-DLI group) and 19 patients received the same step-wise therapy plus G-CSF mobilized DLI (G-DLI group). Groups were not statistically different with regards to baseline characteristics; however, the G-DLI group contained more sibling donors as opposed to unrelated donors than the non-DLI group. With a median follow-up of 47 months, the median overall survival (OS) of the non-DLI and G-DLI groups was not statistically different (8 months vs. 9 months, respectively, P = 0.5). Survival at 3 years was <10% in both groups. Univariate analysis identified response to FLAG, and new onset chronic GVHD as the only factors associated with improved OS. Second donor stem cell infusions are unwarranted in the treatment of relapse after allogeneic SCT and therapeutic strategies should focus on cytoreduction followed by immune modulation with the aim of invoking chronic GVHD.
    International journal of laboratory hematology 09/2013; · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract We retrospectively studied patients who relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) to identify factors influencing outcomes. Of the 296 patients (196 with AML and 100 with ALL), 102 (34%) experienced relapse at a median of 222 days (range: 30-2,748 days) after SCT. Treatment after relapse included supportive care (n = 13), re-induction chemotherapy (n = 37), donor lymphocyte infusion with/without prior chemotherapy (n = 22), and second SCT (n = 30). The 2-year post-relapse survival (PRS) was 14% for all relapsed patients. Multivariable analysis showed that high disease risk (hazard risk [HR]: 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-3.24; p = 0.010), unrelated donor (HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10-2.80; p = 0.018), and interval of <180 days from SCT to relapse (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.26-3.51; p = 0.004) were independent factors of 2-year PRS. These factors were each assigned a score and the sum was used as a prognostic index for PRS. The 2-year PRS in patients of score 0, score 1, score 2, and score 3 was 38%, 19%, 3%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.001). Our new prognostic index may be helpful for selecting the treatment strategy including investigational salvage therapy for relapsed patients after SCT.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 02/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The success of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is limited by a high rate of disease relapse. Early risk assessment could potentially improve outcomes by identifying appropriate patients for pre-emptive strategies that may ameliorate this high risk. Using a series of landmark analyses, we investigated the predictive value of early (day-30) donor chimerism measurements on disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease and survival in a cohort of 121 patients who were allografted with a uniform RIC regimen. Chimerism levels were analyzed as continuous variables. In multivariate analysis, day-30 whole blood chimerism levels were significantly associated with relapse (HR=0.90, p<0.001), relapse-free survival (HR=0.89, p<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.94, p=0.01). Day-30 T-cell chimerism levels were also significantly associated with relapse (HR=0.97, p=0.002), relapse-free survival (HR=0.97, p<0.001) and overall survival (HR=0.99, p=0.05). Multivariate models that included T-cell chimerism provided a better prediction for these outcomes compared to whole blood chimerism. Day-30 chimerism levels were not associated with acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. We found that high donor chimerism levels were significantly associated with a low lymphocyte count in the recipient prior to transplant, highlighting the impact of pre-transplant lymphopenia on the kinetics of engraftment after RIC HSCT. In summary, low donor chimerism levels are associated with relapse and mortality and can potentially be used as an early predictive and prognostic marker. These findings can be used to design novel approaches to prevent relapse and to improve survival after RIC HSCT.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2014; · 3.15 Impact Factor

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