Obesity and cachexia are risk factors for adverse outcomes in adult transplant patients. However, little is known about the effects of body mass index (BMI) on outcomes in pediatric heart transplant patients.
Patients > 2 years of age undergoing heart transplantation from 1985 to 2004 at our institution were included in this study. BMI was assessed at the time of transplant and at 1 year post-transplant. Long-term outcomes were assessed by weight group.
The cohort included 105 patients with a mean age at transplant of 9.6 +/- 5.3 years. The mean BMI percentile at the time of transplant was 39 +/- 34, with 22 (21%) patients underweight (< 5th percentile) and 8 (8%) patients overweight (> or = 95th percentile). Among patients surviving to 1 year (n = 92), the mean BMI percentile increased to 57 +/- 33 (p < 0.05). Overall graft survival was decreased in patients underweight at transplant, mean 6.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.6 to 9.9), vs normal weight patients, mean 10.6 years (95% CI 8.8 to 12.4) (p < 0.05). Patients overweight at transplant did not have decreased graft survival. Neither low nor high BMI at 1 year post-transplant was associated with adverse outcomes. On multivariate analysis, being underweight at transplant was an independent predictor of decreased graft survival (p = 0.03).
Weight gain was nearly universal post-transplant with only 4% of patients underweight at 1 year. In the small number of patients overweight at transplant, graft survival was similar to normal-weight patients. Conversely, being underweight at transplant was an independent predictor of decreased graft survival.
"The development of obesity and hyperlipidemia after heart transplantation has not yet been fully defined. Most transplanted patients tend to gain weight owing to multiple etiologies  , including the use of corticosteroids  and cyclosporine , genetic factors, and lack of exercise. Early on, transplanted patients have been noted to have exaggerated appetites during rehabilitation from their chronic disease. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body habitus assessment (BHA), be it wasted or obese, is a useful marker of nutritional status and overall medical condition. Wasting and obesity pre-heart transplant adversely affects outcomes in adults. The utility of BHA as a prognostic factor in children post-transplant is unknown.
Weight and height at listing and standard growth charts were used to determine the ideal body weight (%IBW) and percentiles for body mass index for age (BMI%) and weight-for-length (W:L%). Wasting was defined as <90%IBW and/or <or=5th percentile for BMI% or W:L%. Obesity was defined as >120%IBW and/or >or=95th percentile BMI% or W:L%. Outcomes of cohorts based on these criteria were compared.
From June 1990 to December 2006, 180 children, aged 5.81 +/- 6 years, were listed for transplant. Wasting occurred in 66 (37%) and obesity in 22 (12%) children, without differences between diagnoses of cardiomyopathy or congenital heart disease. %IBW was a prognostic factor for survival post-transplant on multivariate analysis: obese patients had a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81 to 8.06) compared with normal BHA (p < 0.001). Wasting had a survival advantage compared with normal BHA (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.94, p = 0.032). There were no significant differences between cohorts in incidence of infections, first-year rejections or graft vasculopathy.
Abnormal BHA at listing was a prognostic factor for survival post-transplant. Obese children had increased mortality, but wasting did not adversely affect post-transplant survival in our population. Body habitus assessment may risk-stratify children at listing, potentially providing a complex target for intervention.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 06/2008; 27(5):508-13. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2008.01.026 · 6.65 Impact Factor
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 11/2008; 27(10):1187-8. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2008.07.016 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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