An innovative job placement model for unemployed methadone patients: a randomized clinical trial.
ABSTRACT This article presents the outcomes of an innovative vocational rehabilitation model designed for methadone-maintained patients -- the Customized Employment Supports (CES) model. CES counselors work intensively with a small caseload of patients to overcome the vocational as well as non-vocational barriers that hinder employment, with the goal of attaining rapid job placement. A randomized clinical trial was implemented at two methadone treatment programs in New York City and was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse The study tested the hypothesis that patients assigned to the experimental (CES) condition would have better employment outcomes than those assigned to a control condition who received standard vocational counseling at the programs. The data were collected from May 2001 through April 2005. The efficacy sample for the analysis consisted of 168 patients who completed follow-up interviews. The sample was 58% male, 75% minority group, average age 45 years, and in methadone treatment for an average of five years. The results supported the hypothesis for two measures of employment; i.e., the CES group was significantly more likely than the control group to obtain both any paid employment and informal paid employment. However, there were no significant differences for competitive employment or total earnings. The study's limitations are noted. Implications of the findings for the improvement of vocational rehabilitation for addiction patients are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: For over 50 years, methadone has been prescribed to opioid-dependent individuals as a pharmacological approach for alleviating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal. However, individuals prescribed methadone sometimes require additional interventions (e.g., counseling) to further improve their health. This study undertook a realist synthesis of evaluations of interventions aimed at improving the psychosocial and employment outcomes of individuals on methadone treatment, to determine what interventions work (or not) and why. The realist synthesis method was utilized because it uncovers the processes (or mechanisms) that lead to particular outcomes, and the contexts within which this occurs. A comprehensive search process resulted in 31 articles for review. Data were extracted from the articles, and placed in four templates to assist with analysis. Data analysis was an iterative process and involved comparing and contrasting data within and across each template, and cross checking with original articles to determine key patterns in the data. For individuals on methadone, engagement with an intervention appears to be important for improved psychosocial and/or employment outcomes. The engagement process involves attendance at interventions as well as an investment in what is offered. Three intervention contexts (often in some combination) support the engagement process: a) client-centered contexts (or those where clients' psychosocial and/or employment needs/issues/skills are recognized and/or addressed); b) contexts which address clients' socio-economic conditions and needs; and, c) contexts where there are positive client-counselor and/or peer relationships. There is some evidence that sometimes ongoing engagement is necessary to maintain positive outcomes. There is also some evidence that complete abstinence from drugs (e.g., cocaine, heroin) is not necessary for engagement. It is important to consider how the contexts of interventions might elicit and/or support clients' engagement. Further research is needed to explore how an individual's background (e.g., involvement with different interventions over an extended period) may influence engagement. Long-term engagement may be necessary to sustain some positive outcomes although how long is unclear and requires further research. Engagement can occur without complete abstinence from such drugs as cocaine or heroin, but additional research is required as engagement may be influenced by the extent and type of drug use.BMC psychology. 01/2014; 2(1):26.
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile offenders with substance use problems are at high risk for deleterious long-term outcomes. This study evaluated the capacity of a promising vocational and employment training program in the building sector (i.e., Community Restitution Apprenticeship-Focused Training, CRAFT) to mitigate such outcomes through enhanced employment and education. Participants were 97 high-risk juvenile offenders (mean age=15.8years) randomized to CRAFT versus education as usual (EAU) intervention conditions. Multi-method procedures measured employment, education, substance use, mental health, and criminal outcomes through a 30-month post-baseline follow-up. CRAFT was significantly more effective than EAU at increasing rates of youth employment and GED attendance. Intervention effects were not observed, however, for months employed, hours worked, or hourly wage. Measures of youth substance use, mental health symptoms, and criminal activity showed no favorable or iatrogenic effects. The potential of CRAFT was modestly supported, and suggestions were made for future research.Journal of substance abuse treatment 08/2013; · 2.90 Impact Factor