Differential protein adduction by seven organophosphorus pesticides in both brain and thymus.

Medical Research Council Applied Neuroscience Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, United Kingdom.
Human &amp Experimental Toxicology (Impact Factor: 1.45). 05/2007; 26(4):347-53. DOI: 10.1177/0960327107074617
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is a need for mechanistic understanding of the lasting ill health reported in several studies of workers exposed to organophosphorus (OP) pesticide. Although the acute toxicity is largely explicable by acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the lasting effects of frank poisoning by direct excitotoxicity or indirect consequences of the cholinergic syndrome, effects at lower levels of exposure would not be predicted from these mechanisms. Similarly, reversible interactions with nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in adults would not predict continuing ill health. Many OP pesticides produce protein adduction, and the lasting nature of this makes it a candidate mechanism for the production of continuing ill health. We found significant adduction of partially characterized protein targets in both rat brain and thymus by azamethiphos, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, dichlorvos and malaoxon, in vitro and pirimiphos-methyl in vivo. The diversity in the adduction pattern seen across these agents at low dose levels means that any longer term effects of adduction would be specific to specific organophosphates, rather than generic. This presents a challenge to epidemiology, as most exposures are to different agents over time. However, some adducted proteins are also expressed in blood, notably albumin, and so may provide exposure measures to increase the power of future epidemiological studies.

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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a diverse chemical group that includes nerve agents and pesticides. They share a common chemical signature that facilitates their binding and adduction of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) within nerve synapses to induce cholinergic toxicity. However, this group diversity results in non-uniform binding and inactivation of other secondary protein targets, some of which may be adducted and protein activity influenced, even when only a relatively minor portion of tissue AChE is inhibited. The determination of individual OP protein binding targets has been hampered by the sensitivity of methods of detection and quantification of protein-pesticide adducts. We have overcome this limitation by the employment of a microchannel plate (MCP) autoradiographic detector to monitor a radiolabelled OP tracer compound. We preincubated rat thymus tissue in vitro with the OP pesticides, azamethiphos-oxon, chlorfenvinphos-oxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, diazinon-oxon, and malaoxon, and then subsequently radiolabelled the free OP binding sites remaining with 3H-diisopropylfluorophosphate (3H-DFP). Proteins adducted by OP pesticides were detected as a reduction in 3H-DFP radiolabelling after protein separation by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and quantitative digital autoradiography using the MCP imager. Thymus tissue proteins of molecular weights -28 kDa, 59 kDa, 66 kDa, and 82 kDa displayed responsiveness to adduction by this panel of pesticides. The 59 kDa protein target (previously putatively identified as carboxylesterase I) was only significantly adducted by chlorfenvinphos-oxon (p < 0.001), chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001), and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.01), the 66 kDa protein target (previously identified as serum albumin) similarly only adducted by the same three pesticides (p < 0.0001), (p < 0.001), and (p < 0.01), and the 82 kDa protein target (previously identified as acyl peptide hydrolase) only adducted by chlorpyrifos-oxon (p < 0.0001) and diazinon-oxon (p < 0.001), when the average values of tissue AChE inhibition were 30%, 35%, and 32% respectively. The -28 kDa protein target was shown to be heterogeneous in nature and was resolved to reveal nineteen 3H-DFP radiolabelled protein spots by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and MCP autoradiography. Some of these 3H-DFP proteins spots were responsive to adduction by preincubation with chlorfenvinphos-oxon. In addition, we exploited the useful spatial resolution of the MCP imager (-70 mm) to determine pesticide micolocalisation in vivo, after animal dosing and autoradiography of brain tissue sections. Collectively, MCP autoradiographic imaging provided a means to detect targets of OP pesticides, quantify their sensitivity of adduction relative to tissue AChE inhibition, and highlighted that these common pesticides exhibit specific binding character to protein targets, and therefore their toxicity will need to be evaluated on an individual compound basis. In addition, MCP autoradiography afforded a useful method of visualisation of the localisation of a small radiolabelled tracer within brain tissue.
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    Chirality 07/2013; · 1.72 Impact Factor


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