Increased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in the spinal cord of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT To investigate whether the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the change in the level of CREB phosphorylation was analyzed in the spinal cord of Lewis rats with EAE. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation of CREB in the spinal cord of rats increased significantly at the peak stage of EAE compared with the controls (p<0.05) and declined significantly in the recovery stage (p<0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the phosphorylated form of CREB (p-CREB) was constitutively immunostained in few astrocytes and dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord of normal rats. In the EAE-affected spinal cord, p-CREB was mainly found in ED1-positive macrophages at the peak stage of EAE, and the number of p-CREB-immunopositive astrocytes was markedly increased in the spinal cord with EAE compared with the controls. Moreover, p-CREB immunoreactivity of sensory neurons, which are closely associated with neuropathic pain, was significantly increased in the dorsal horns at the peak stage of EAE. Based on these results, we suggest that the increased phosphorylation of CREB in EAE lesions was mainly attributable to the infiltration of inflammatory cells and astrogliosis, possibly activating gene transcription, and that its increase in the sensory neurons in the dorsal horns is involved in the generation of neuropathic pain in the rat EAE model.
Article: The role of kinin receptors in preventing neuroinflammation and its clinical severity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and neuroinflammatory disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). The expression of kinins is increased in MS patients, but the underlying mechanisms by which the kinin receptor regulates MS development have not been elucidated. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with MOG(35-55) peptide emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant and injected with pertussis toxin on day 0 and day 2. Here, we report that blockade of the B(1)R in the induction phase of EAE markedly suppressed its progression by interfering with the onset of the immune response. Furthermore, B(1)R antagonist suppressed the production/expression of antigen-specific T(H)1 and T(H)17 cytokines and transcription factors, both in the periphery and in the CNS. In the chronic phase of EAE, the blockade of B(1)R consistently impaired the clinical progression of EAE. Conversely, administration of the B(1)R agonist in the acute phase of EAE suppressed disease progression and inhibited the increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and any further CNS inflammation. Of note, blockade of the B(2)R only showed a moderate impact on all of the studied parameters of EAE progression. Our results strongly suggest that kinin receptors, mainly the B(1)R subtype, play a dual role in EAE progression depending on the phase of treatment through the lymphocytes and glial cell-dependent pathways.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27875. · 4.09 Impact Factor