Localization of the developmental timing regulator Lin28 to mRNP complexes, P-bodies and stress granules.
ABSTRACT Lin28 is a conserved cytoplasmic protein with an unusual pairing of RNA-binding motifs: a cold shock domain and a pair of retroviral-type CCHC zinc fingers. In the nematode C. elegans, it is a regulator of developmental timing. In mammals, it is abundant in diverse types of undifferentiated cells. However, its molecular function is unknown. In pluripotent mammalian cells, Lin28 is observed in RNase-sensitive complexes with poly(A)-binding protein, and in polysomal fractions of sucrose gradients, suggesting it is associated with translating mRNAs. Upon cellular stress, Lin28 locates to stress granules, which contain non-translating mRNA complexes. However, Lin28 also localizes to cytoplasmic processing bodies, or P-bodies, sites of mRNA degradation and microRNA regulation, consistent with it acting to regulate mRNA translation or stability. Mutational analysis shows that Lin28's conserved RNA binding domains cooperate to put Lin28 in mRNPs, but that only the CCHC domain is required for localization to P-bodies. When both RNA-binding domains are mutated, Lin28 accumulates in the nucleus, suggesting that it normally shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm bound to RNA. These studies are consistent with a model in which Lin28 binds mRNAs in the nucleus and accompanies them to ribosomes and P-bodies. We propose that Lin28 influences the translation or stability of specific mRNAs during differentiation.
SourceAvailable from: Seung-Kyoon Kim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: LIN28-mediated processing of the microRNA (miRNA) let-7 has emerged as a multilevel program that controls self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. LIN28A is believed to act primarily in the cytoplasm together with TUT4/7 to prevent final maturation of let-7 by Dicer, whereas LIN28B has been suggested to preferentially act on nuclear processing of let-7. Here, we find that SET7/9 monomethylation in a putative nucleolar localization region of LIN28A increases its nuclear retention and protein stability. In the nucleoli of human embryonic stem cells, methylated LIN28A sequesters pri-let-7 and blocks its processing independently of TUT4/7. The nuclear form of LIN28A regulates transcriptional changes in MYCpathway targets, thereby maintaining stemness programs and inhibiting expression of early lineage- specific markers. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the posttranslational methylation of nuclear LIN28A and its ability to modulate pluripotency by repressing let-7 miRNA expression in human embryonic stem cellsCell Stem Cell 12/2014; 15:735. DOI:10.1016/j.stem.2014.10.016 · 22.15 Impact Factor
Article: Stress granules, P-bodies and cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer cells are exposed to adverse conditions in the tumor microenvironment, and utilize post-transcriptional control mechanisms to re-program gene expression in ways that enhance cell survival. Stress granules and processing bodies are RNA-containing granules that contribute to this process by modulating cellular signaling pathways, metabolic machinery, and stress response programs. This review examines evidence implicating RNA granules in the pathogenesis of cancer and discusses their potential as targets for anticancer therapies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.11.009 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The RNA-binding protein L1TD1 is one of the most specific and abundant proteins in pluripotent stem cells and is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency in human cells. Here, we identify the protein interaction network of L1TD1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and provide insights into the interactome network constructed in human pluripotent cells. Our data reveal that L1TD1 has an important role in RNA splicing, translation, protein traffic, and degradation. L1TD1 interacts with multiple stem-cell-specific proteins, many of which are still uncharacterized in the context of development. Further, we show that L1TD1 is a part of the pluripotency interactome network of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, bridging nuclear and cytoplasmic regulation and highlighting the importance of RNA biology in pluripotency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.