Localization of the Developmental Timing Regulator Lin28 to mRNP Complexes, P-bodies and Stress Granules
ABSTRACT Lin28 is a conserved cytoplasmic protein with an unusual pairing of RNA-binding motifs: a cold shock domain and a pair of retroviral-type CCHC zinc fingers. In the nematode C. elegans, it is a regulator of developmental timing. In mammals, it is abundant in diverse types of undifferentiated cells. However, its molecular function is unknown. In pluripotent mammalian cells, Lin28 is observed in RNase-sensitive complexes with poly(A)-binding protein, and in polysomal fractions of sucrose gradients, suggesting it is associated with translating mRNAs. Upon cellular stress, Lin28 locates to stress granules, which contain non-translating mRNA complexes. However, Lin28 also localizes to cytoplasmic processing bodies, or P-bodies, sites of mRNA degradation and microRNA regulation, consistent with it acting to regulate mRNA translation or stability. Mutational analysis shows that Lin28's conserved RNA binding domains cooperate to put Lin28 in mRNPs, but that only the CCHC domain is required for localization to P-bodies. When both RNA-binding domains are mutated, Lin28 accumulates in the nucleus, suggesting that it normally shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm bound to RNA. These studies are consistent with a model in which Lin28 binds mRNAs in the nucleus and accompanies them to ribosomes and P-bodies. We propose that Lin28 influences the translation or stability of specific mRNAs during differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: The RNA-binding protein L1TD1 is one of the most specific and abundant proteins in pluripotent stem cells and is essential for the maintenance of pluripotency in human cells. Here, we identify the protein interaction network of L1TD1 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and provide insights into the interactome network constructed in human pluripotent cells. Our data reveal that L1TD1 has an important role in RNA splicing, translation, protein traffic, and degradation. L1TD1 interacts with multiple stem-cell-specific proteins, many of which are still uncharacterized in the context of development. Further, we show that L1TD1 is a part of the pluripotency interactome network of OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, bridging nuclear and cytoplasmic regulation and highlighting the importance of RNA biology in pluripotency. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: The maternal nucleolus is required for proper activation of the embryonic genome (EGA) and early embryonic development. Nucleologenesis is characterized by the transformation of a nucleolar precursor body (NPB) to a mature nucleolus during preimplantation development. However, the function of NPBs and the involved molecular factors are unknown. We uncover a novel role for the pluripotency factor LIN28, the biological significance of which was previously demonstrated in the reprogramming of human somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here, we show that LIN28 accumulates at the NPB and the mature nucleolus in mouse preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), where it colocalizes with the nucleolar marker B23 (nucleophosmin 1). LIN28 has nucleolar localization in non-human primate (NHP) preimplantation embryos, but is cytoplasmic in NHP ESCs. Lin28 transcripts show a striking decline before mouse EGA, whereas LIN28 protein localizes to NPBs at the time of EGA. Following knockdown with a Lin28 morpholino, the majority of embryos arrest between the 2- and 4-cell stages and never develop to morula or blastocyst. Lin28 morpholino-injected embryos arrested at the 2-cell stage were not enriched with nucleophosmin at presumptive NPB sites, indicating that functional NPBs were not assembled. Based on these results, we propose that LIN28 is an essential factor of nucleologenesis during early embryonic development.Development 12/2012; 139(24):4514-23. DOI:10.1242/dev.083279 · 6.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: LIN28 plays a critical role in developmental transition, glucose metabolism, and tumorigenesis. At the molecular level, LIN28 is known to repress maturation of let-7 microRNAs and enhance translation of certain mRNAs. In this study, we obtain a genome-wide view of the molecular function of LIN28A in mouse embryonic stem cells by carrying out RNA crosslinking-immunoprecipitation-sequencing (CLIP-seq) and ribosome footprinting. We find that, in addition to let-7 precursors, LIN28A binds to a large number of spliced mRNAs. LIN28A recognizes AAGNNG, AAGNG, and less frequently UGUG, which are located in the terminal loop of a small hairpin. LIN28A is localized to the periendoplasmic reticulum (ER) area and inhibits translation of mRNAs that are destined for the ER, reducing the synthesis of transmembrane proteins, ER or Golgi lumen proteins, and secretory proteins. Our study suggests a selective regulatory mechanism for ER-associated translation and reveals an unexpected role of LIN28A as a global suppressor of genes in the secretory pathway.Cell 10/2012; 151(4). DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2012.10.019 · 33.12 Impact Factor