Article

Reciprocal regulation of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 during proliferation of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, PR, China.
Cancer biology & therapy (Impact Factor: 3.63). 07/2007; 6(6):864-71.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Androgens have been associated with the risk for epithelial ovarian cancer (OVCA). Both IL-6 and IL-8 are also likely involved in the progression of OVCA. In order to discover the underline molecular mechanism, we investigated the modulation of androgen and two cytokines in the growth of epithelial OVCA. In these studies, the effect of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 was investigated. The effect of IL-6 and IL-8 on cell growth and androgen receptor (AR) expression was also analyzed. Gene expression profile analysis revealed that SKOV-3 cells, which express AR, IL-6 and IL-8 receptors, are suitable model for this study. We found that IL-6 and IL-8 markedly promoted SKOV-3 cell proliferation. Furthermore, DHT enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Flutamide (Flu), an AR antagonist, completely abolished DHT-stimulated cell growth and the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. IL-6- or IL-8-induced cell proliferation was completely blocked by their specific neutralizing antibodies, which partially inhibited DHT-induced cell growth. In the absence of androgen, both cytokines enhanced AR expression and AR promoter activation, which was completely blocked by Flu. However, Flu failed tor educe IL-6-/IL-8-induced cell growth. Pretreatment of SKOV-3 cells with p38 MAPK, MEK1/2, and ErbB2 MAPK inhibitors, respectively, blocked IL-6-mediated enhancement of AR transcription while Src inhibitor blocked IL-8 induced AR transcription. These results provide a novel mechanism that androgens, IL-6 and IL-8 may form a common amplifying signaling cascade to modulate OVCA growth. Androgen-induced OVCA proliferation is partially occurring via enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 expression, and IL-6/IL-8 could also promote OVCA growth by activation of AR gene promoter.

0 Followers
 · 
86 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C-related kinases are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Rho family GTPases. The isoform PRK1 has been characterized in detail in prostate cancer, but not in other carcinomas. We analyzed our prior microarray data for PRK1 gene expression in 175 carcinomas and evaluated tissue microarrays for protein expression in 251 carcinomas and a comprehensive group of normal tissues. We also used immunoblotting to determine the levels and phosphoactivation status of PRK1, PRK2, and PDK1 in 12 ovarian serous carcinomas, SKOV3 cells, and 3 samples of normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). The highest average level of PRK1 messenger RNA was observed in ovarian serous carcinomas compared with all other carcinomas, including those of the prostate, bladder/ureter, breast, colon, stomach/esophagus, kidney, liver, pancreas, and lung (P = .05). By immunohistochemistry, PRK1 was observed in selected normal cells, including epithelium from the gynecologic tract and hematolymphoid elements. All serous ovarian and endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas and mesotheliomas were immunoreactive for PRK1. The findings in nonserous ovarian and most carcinomas from the prostate, breast, and pancreas were also positive but less consistently so. In comparison with OSE, the serous carcinomas typically had greater pPRK1/total PRK1 (P = .02) as well as greater pPDK/total PDK (P = .01). The relative phosphorylation status of these 2 kinases correlated within each sample. In summary, PRK1 is present in various malignancies, but especially in serous carcinomas, where the increased activation status of PRK1 and its upstream regulator, PDK, as compared with normal OSE suggests a role in ovarian cancer development or progression.
    Human pathology 06/2009; 40(10):1434-40. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2009.02.008 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha/C-C chemokine ligand 20 (MIP-3alpha/CCL20) is an antimicrobial peptide that plays an important role in innate immunity. In addition to direct microbicidal effects, MIP-3alpha/CCL20 also exhibits cytokine-like functions that are critical during dendritic cell activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate further which signaling pathways are involved in the MIP-3alpha/CCL20 mRNA expression in response to whole-cell Porphyromonas gingivalis. Primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs) and the immortalized oral keratinocyte cell-line OKF6/TERT-2 were stimulated with whole-cell P. gingivalis. Prior to stimulation, GECs and OKF6/TERT-2 cells were pretreated with specific inhibitors for nuclear-factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase C (PLC), and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). In GECs and OKF6/TERT-2 cells, activation of NF-kappaB was examined after exposure to P. gingivalis. The gene expression of MIP-3alpha/CCL20 was significantly induced in response to P. gingivalis (P <or= 0.05) compared to unstimulated control cells. This induction was specifically blocked when cells were pre-incubated with inhibitors for NF-kappaB, MAPK, and PLC (P <or= 0.05), but not for PI3K. These results demonstrate that P. gingivalis induces the MIP-3alpha/CCL20 mRNA in a NF-kappaB-, PLC-, and MAPK-dependent manner.
    Innate Immunity 09/2009; 16(4):226-34. DOI:10.1177/1753425909339237 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that IL-6 is elevated in the serum and ascites of ovarian cancer patients, and increased IL-6 concentration correlates with poor prognosis and chemoresistance. However, the role of IL-6 expression in the acquisition of the chemoresistance phenotype and the underlining mechanisms of drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that both exogenous (a relatively short period of treatment with recombination IL-6) and endogenous IL-6 (by transfecting with plasmid encoding for sense IL-6) induce cisplatin and paclitaxel resistance in non-IL-6-expressing A2780 cells, while deleting of endogenous IL-6 expression in IL-6-overexpressing SKOV3 cells (by transfecting with plasmid encoding for antisense IL-6) promotes the sensitivity of these cells to anticancer drugs. IL-6-mediated resistance of ovarian cancer cells exhibits decreased proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Meanwhile, the further study demonstrates that the chemoresistance caused by IL-6 is associated with increased expression of both multidrug resistance-related genes (MDR1 and GSTpi) and apoptosis inhibitory proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and XIAP), as well as activation of Ras/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling. Therefore, modulation of IL-6 expression or its related signaling pathway may be a promising strategy of treatment for drug-resistant ovarian cancer.
    Cancer letters 03/2010; 295(1):110-23. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2010.02.019 · 5.02 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from