Dysbindin (DTNBP1) and the Biogenesis of Lysosome-Related Organelles Complex 1 (BLOC-1): Main and Epistatic Gene Effects Are Potential Contributors to Schizophrenia Susceptibility

Neuropsychiatric Genetics Group, Department of Psychiatry and Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. /
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 02/2008; 63(1):24-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.12.025
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The DTNBP1 gene, encoding dysbindin, has been strongly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility by a series of independent genetic association and gene expression studies. Among its known functions, dysbindin is part of a protein complex, termed the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), the molecular components of which might be involved in the regulation of vesicular trafficking and dendrite branching.
A systematic investigation of the other seven BLOC-1 genes (MUTED, PLDN, CNO, SNAPAP, BLOC1S1, BLOC1S2, and BLOC1S3) for evidence of association with SZ was undertaken in a sample of 373 SZ cases and 812 control subjects. Possible epistasis between combinations of BLOC-1 genes, including DTNBP1, was tested with a novel method of investigating for gene-gene interaction. Quality control measures were incorporated into genotyping strategy, and all results were corrected for multiple testing to prevent false positive results.
We identified significant evidence of association between BLOC1S3 and SZ (odds ratio = 1.45, confidence interval = 1.13-1.86, p = .0028, corrected p = .0389). We also report evidence for epistatic interaction between DTNBP1 and MUTED contributing to SZ in the absence of a significant main effect at MUTED (p = .0009, corrected p = .0252). Single marker and epistasis results remained significant after correction for multiple testing.
Together these data provide evidence for the involvement of the BLOC-1 protein complex in SZ pathogenesis.

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Available from: Kevin John Murphy, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "The altered ultrastructure of hippocampal synaptic vesicles might cause reduced neurotransmission and thereafter the schizophrenia-like symptoms observed in sdy mice (Chen et al., 2008; Feng et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2014). However, except for DTNBP1 and BLOC1S3, genes encoding other BLOC-1 subunits have no significant association with schizophrenia although an epistatic interaction between DTNBP1 and MUTED might exist (Morris et al., 2008). Currently, there is no support for MUTED as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (Gerrish et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The large dense-core vesicle (LDCV), a type of lysosome-related organelle, is involved in the secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in specialized secretory cells. The granin family is a driving force in LDCV biogenesis, but the machinery for granin sorting to this biogenesis pathway is largely unknown. The mu mutant mouse, which carries a spontaneous null mutation on the Muted gene (also known as Bloc1s5) that encodes a subunit of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), is a mouse model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. We here found that LDCVs were enlarged in mu adrenal chromaffin cells. Chromogranin A (CgA) was increased in mu adrenals and muted-knockdown cells. The increased CgA in mu mice was likely due to the failure of its sorting-out, which impairs LDCV maturation and docking. In mu chromaffin cells, the size of readily releasable pool and the vesicle release frequency were reduced. Our studies suggest that the muted protein is involved in the sorting-out of CgA during the biogenesis of LDCVs.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/2015; 128(7). DOI:10.1242/jcs.161414 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Consistent with such a role in the nervous system, both Dysbindin and Snapin appear to function in synaptic vesicle trafficking and may be involved in other synaptic membrane trafficking pathways. Interestingly, another component of the BLOC-1 complex, Muted, has recently been associated with schizophrenia (Morris et al., 2008; Ryder and Faundez, 2009). These findings underscore the intriguing possibility that defective synaptic membrane trafficking through components of the BLOC-1 complex in the context of homeostatic synaptic plasticity may contribute to the etiology of complex neuropsychiatric diseases like schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Homeostatic signaling systems are ubiquitous forms of biological regulation, having been studied for hundreds of years in the context of diverse physiological processes including body temperature and osmotic balance. However, only recently has this concept been brought to the study of excitatory and inhibitory electrical activity that the nervous system uses to establish and maintain stable communication. Synapses are a primary target of neuronal regulation with a variety of studies over the past 15 years demonstrating that these cellular junctions are under bidirectional homeostatic control. Recent work from an array of diverse systems and approaches has revealed exciting new links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and a variety of seemingly disparate neurological and psychiatric diseases. These include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia, and Fragile X Syndrome. Although the molecular mechanisms through which defective homeostatic signaling may lead to disease pathogenesis remain unclear, rapid progress is likely to be made in the coming years using a powerful combination of genetic, imaging, electrophysiological, and next generation sequencing approaches. Importantly, understanding homeostatic synaptic plasticity at a cellular and molecular level may lead to developments in new therapeutic innovations to treat these diseases. In this review we will examine recent studies that demonstrate homeostatic control of postsynaptic protein translation, retrograde signaling, and presynaptic function that may contribute to the etiology of complex neurological and psychiatric diseases.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2013; 7:223. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00223 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    • "DTNBP1 genetic variants have been linked to general cognitive ability [18-20]. Furthermore, SNPs in this gene have been extensively associated with schizophrenia [21-23]. In vitro studies indicated dysbindin as a binding partner of several proteins with a suggested role in muscular physiology [24-26], and increased dysbindin transcript and protein levels were measured in muscle biopsies from individuals and mice with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD; MIM 310200)  [27,28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Nineteen patients with deletions in chromosome 6p22-p24 have been published so far. The syndromic phenotype is varied, and includes intellectual disability, behavioural abnormalities, dysmorphic features and structural organ defects. Heterogeneous deletion breakpoints and sizes (1–17 Mb) and overlapping phenotypes have made the identification of the disease causing genes challenging. We suggest JARID2 and ATXN1, both harbored in 6p22.3, as disease causing genes. Methods and results We describe five unrelated patients with de novo deletions (0.1-4.8 Mb in size) in chromosome 6p22.3-p24.1 detected by aCGH in a cohort of approximately 3600 patients ascertained for neurodevelopmental disorders. Two patients (Patients 4 and 5) carried non-overlapping deletions that were encompassed by the deletions of the remaining three patients (Patients 1–3), indicating the existence of two distinct dosage sensitive genes responsible for impaired cognitive function in 6p22.3 deletion-patients. The smallest region of overlap (SRO I) in Patients 1–4 (189 kb) included the genes JARID2 and DTNBP1, while SRO II in Patients 1–3 and 5 (116 kb) contained GMPR and ATXN1. Patients with deletion of SRO I manifested variable degrees of cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and distinct, similar facial dysmorphic features (prominent supraorbital ridges, deep set eyes, dark infraorbital circles and midface hypoplasia) that might be ascribed to the haploinsufficiency of JARID2. Patients with deletion of SRO II showed intellectual disability and behavioural abnormalities, likely to be caused by the deletion of ATXN1. Patients 1–3 presented with lower cognitive function than Patients 4 and 5, possibly due to the concomitant haploinsufficiency of both ATXN1 and JARID2. The chromatin modifier genes ATXN1 and JARID2 are likely candidates contributing to the clinical phenotype in 6p22-p24 deletion-patients. Both genes exert their effect on the Notch signalling pathway, which plays an important role in several developmental processes. Conclusions Patients carrying JARID2 deletion manifested with cognitive impairment, gait disturbance and a characteristic facial appearance, whereas patients with deletion of ATXN1 seemed to be characterized by intellectual disability and behavioural abnormalities. Due to the characteristic facial appearance, JARID2 haploinsufficiency might represent a clinically recognizable neurodevelopmental syndrome.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 01/2013; 8(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1750-1172-8-3 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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