Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment.
ABSTRACT Although levodopa is the gold standard for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), long-term therapy leads to levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Dyskinesia refers to involuntary movements other than tremor and most commonly consists of chorea that occurs when levodopa-derived dopamine is peaking in the brain ("peak-dose dyskinesia"). However, dyskinesia can also consist of dystonia or myoclonus and occur during other parts of the levodopa dosing cycle. New validated rating scales and home diaries can better help the health care provider assess the timing and severity of dyskinesia. The exact etiology of LID is unknown, but there is evidence that abnormal pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors may be contributory. Treatment of LID includes adjustment of PD medications to maximize "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia. Amantadine is the only medication available with demonstrated ability to reduce the expression of established LID without reducing antiparkinsonian benefit. Other medications that are currently being studied to treat established LID include antiepileptics and serotonergic medications. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is now the most commonly used surgical procedure for PD patients, and it is very effective in treating LID.
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ABSTRACT: Severe dyskinesias during the 'off' phases (periods of increased Parkinson's disease (PD) disability) have been observed following intrastriatal transplantation of human embryonic mesencephalic tissue. Here we retrospectively analyzed 14 patients who were followed for up to 11 years after grafting, and found that dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements and postures) increased during postoperative off phases, but were generally of mild to moderate severity. Dyskinesia severity was not related to the magnitude of graft-derived dopaminergic re-innervation, as judged by (18)F-labeled 6-L-fluorodopa (FD) positron emission tomography (PET), indicating that off-phase dyskinesias probably did not result from excessive growth of grafted dopaminergic neurons.Nature Neuroscience 08/2002; 5(7):627-8. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of the NMDA antagonist dextromethorphan (DM) on levodopa-associated dyskinesias and motor fluctuations were studied in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. During initial open-label dose escalation, 6 of 18 patients reported a beneficial effect at their individually determined optimal DM dose (range, 60-120 mg/day). The 12 remaining patients either experienced reversible side effects, particularly mild drowsiness, or decreased levodopa efficacy, and were therefore excluded from the study. The six responders entered the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with two 2-week arms separated by 1 week wash-out. On the last day of each arm, motor ratings were performed every 20 minutes for 8 consecutive hours. In addition, motor complications and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and patient diaries. With DM, dyskinesias improved by 25% according to physician's ratings and by 40% according to UPDRS interviews, without compromising the anti-Parkinson effect of levodopa. Motor fluctuations and ADL scores also improved significantly. Although the narrow therapeutic index of DM limits its clinical usefulness, these findings support the view that drugs acting to inhibit glutamatergic transmission at the NMDA receptor can ameliorate levodopa-associated motor complications.Movement Disorders 06/1998; 13(3):414-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1a (5-HT(1a)) receptor agonists, such as sarizotan and tandospirone, are reported to reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated macaques and in Parkinson's disease without worsening motor disability. However, these compounds are not specific for 5-HT(1a) receptors and also possess dopamine antagonist actions. We now report on the effects of (2R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT], a selective 5-HT(1a) agonist lacking dopaminergic activity, on motor disability and dyskinesia (chorea and dystonia) in levodopa-primed MPTP-treated common marmosets. Administration of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT (0.2, 0.6, and 2.0 mg/kg s.c), in conjunction with levodopa/carbidopa (12.5 mg/kg each p.o.) to levodopa-primed animals, dose-dependently reduced levodopa-induced chorea but did not affect dystonic movements. However, (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT treatment also reduced locomotor activity and the reversal of motor disability. Administration of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT alone had no effects of motor behaviors. The effects of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT on levodopa-induced motor behaviors were antagonized by the 5-HT(1a) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate (WAY-100635) (1.0 mg/kg s.c.). Administration of (R)-(+)-8-OHDPAT (0.6 mg/kg s.c.) also reduced chorea produced by the administration of the D(2)/D(3) dopamine receptor agonist pramipexole (0.06 mg/kg p.o.) to levodopa-primed MPTP-treated animals. However, again the increase in locomotor activity and reversal of motor disability produced by pramipexole were also inhibited. These data suggest that selective 5-HT(1a) agonists do not provide an effective means of suppressing levodopa-induced dyskinesia, except with worsening of parkinsonism.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/2007; 319(3):1225-34. · 3.89 Impact Factor