Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease: epidemiology, etiology, and treatment.
ABSTRACT Although levodopa is the gold standard for treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), long-term therapy leads to levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Dyskinesia refers to involuntary movements other than tremor and most commonly consists of chorea that occurs when levodopa-derived dopamine is peaking in the brain ("peak-dose dyskinesia"). However, dyskinesia can also consist of dystonia or myoclonus and occur during other parts of the levodopa dosing cycle. New validated rating scales and home diaries can better help the health care provider assess the timing and severity of dyskinesia. The exact etiology of LID is unknown, but there is evidence that abnormal pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors may be contributory. Treatment of LID includes adjustment of PD medications to maximize "on" time without troublesome dyskinesia. Amantadine is the only medication available with demonstrated ability to reduce the expression of established LID without reducing antiparkinsonian benefit. Other medications that are currently being studied to treat established LID include antiepileptics and serotonergic medications. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is now the most commonly used surgical procedure for PD patients, and it is very effective in treating LID.
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ABSTRACT: Drug-induced dyskinesia is a major complication of dopamine replacement therapy in advanced Parkinson's disease consisting of dystonia, chorea and athetosis. Agonists at 5-HT1A-receptors attenuate levodopa-induced motor complications in non-human primates. Mice with increased dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) signalling due to the lack of expression of the regulator of G-protein signalling 9 (RGS9) also develop dyskinesia following levodopa treatment. We investigated whether the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist flibanserin compared with buspirone reduces motor abnormalities induced by levodopa or quinelorane, a selective dopamine D2-receptor agonist. Following dopamine depletion via reserpine, 40 mice (20 wild-type and 20 RGS9 knock-out) were treated with flibanserin or buspirone in combination with levodopa or quinelorane. Motor behaviour was analysed using open field analysis. RGS9 knock-out mice displayed significantly more drug-induced dystonia (p < 0.04; t test) than wild type. In quinelorane-treated wild-type mice flibanserin as well as buspirone significantly reduced dystonia (p < 0.05). In RGS9 knock-out animals again both reduced quinelorane-induced dystonia. However, flibanserin was significantly more effective (p = 0.003). Following reserpine pretreatment and administration of levodopa wild-type and RGS 9 knock-out mice showed mild to moderate dystonia. Surprisingly, 10 mg/kg buspirone increased dystonia in both animal groups, whereas it was decreased by 10 mg/kg flibanserin. However, compared with levodopa alone only the increase of dystonia by buspirone was significant (p < 0.04). Flibanserin showed promising antidyskinetic effects in a model of drug-induced dyskinesia. Our data underline the possible benefit of 5-HT1A agonists in drug-induced dyskinesia.Journal of Neural Transmission 05/2012; 119(11):1351-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) is compromised by motor side effects, such as dyskinesia and non-motor problems, including psychosis. Because of the marked reduction in brain dopamine in PD and the resultant dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity, it is impossible to use standard potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonists such as haloperidol to alleviate side effects without compromising the anti-parkinsonian benefits of L-DOPA. Haloperidol antagonizes D2 receptors with high affinity and slowly dissociates from D2 receptors (50% dissociation at 38min). We hypothesized that a rapidly dissociating D2 antagonist might allow some functional dopaminergic transmission and thus have a profile, with respect to reduction of dyskinesia and anti-parkinsonian effects, that was more useful therapeutically. The present study tested the principle of using a fast-off-D2 drug, CLR151 (50% dissociation at 23s) to modify L-DOPA actions in cynomolgus macaques with MPTP-parkinsonism. CLR151 (100mg/kg p.o.) reduced L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and activity in the parkinsonian macaque by 86% and 52% respectively during peak action. CLR151 (100mg/kg) also reduced psychosis-like behaviour (i.e. reduced apparent visual hallucinations by 78%). Nevertheless, this dose of CLR151 significantly reduced the duration of anti-parkinsonian action of L-DOPA, ON-time (by 90%), and increased parkinsonian disability (by 57%). These data suggest that fast-off-D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, with D2-off-rate values close to those for CLR151, are unlikely to be useful in the treatment of dyskinesia and psychosis in PD. However, fast-off-D2 drugs could provide benefit if new congeners would have an even faster dissociation rate. Such drugs are now becoming available.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 01/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spontaneous involuntary dystonic and choreatic movements induced by L-DOPA (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID)) represent a severe complication of long-time pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease that deserves novel therapeutics. Previous studies demonstrated antidyskinetics effect of the KV7.2-7.5 channel opener retigabine after acute and chronic treatment in a rat model of LID. We hypothesized that this effect was mainly mediated by KV7.2/3 channels located on striatal projection neurons, as an increased activity of these neurons seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of LID. We therefore examined the acute effects of the KV7.2/3 preferring channel opener ICA 27243 (N-(6-Chloro-pyridin-3-yl)-3,4-difluoro-benzamide, 5-15mg/kg i.p.) on LID in this animal model. Ten and 15mg ICA 27243 significantly reduced abnormal involuntary movements (AIM) while no negative impact on the antiparkinsonian effect of L-DOPA was observed. However, at the end of the testing session (180min) AIM scores increased after application of both doses. Further studies have to clarify if this can be avoided by a different application regime. Nevertheless, the present results suggest that selective openers of KV7.2/3 channels might be interesting candidates for the treatment of LID as antidyskinetic effects occurred at well tolerated doses and did not interfere with the antiparkinsonian effect of L-DOPA.Neuroscience Letters 04/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor