Forecast of demand for antiretroviral drugs in low and middle-income countries: 2007-2008
ABSTRACT Middle and low-income countries have scaled up HIV treatment in the past 5 years. To maintain this effort, information regarding the amounts and types of drugs is needed. Shortages or overstock of active pharmaceutical ingredients make the scale-up efforts more difficult and costly. To inform global planning and implementation, we estimate the volume of current and future demand for active pharmaceutical ingredients for first and second-line antiretroviral drugs.
Using regression analysis and documented assumptions, we estimated the number of individuals receiving antiretroviral drugs to 2008. The volume of active pharmaceutical ingredients was calculated using two methods: a normative approach modelling implementation of country-specific guidelines, and an empirical model projecting current trends in drug use estimated by a survey of country HIV programmes.
The number of patients treated was estimated to reach 3.38 million by the end of 2008, of which 94.6% would be on first-line and 5.4% on second-line treatment. The largest estimated absolute demand volumes for 2008 were for nevirapine, lamivudine, and zidovudine using either approach; the largest proportional increases in 2007-2008, were observed for emtricitabine, tenofovir, indinavir, and nelfinavir. The gap between normative and empirical estimates was greatest (most positive) for tenofovir, zidovudine, didanosine, and smallest (most negative) for saquinavir and nelfinavir.
A comparison of the results from the normative and empirical demand quantities suggests that more tenofovir, zidovudine and didanosine would be required if national treatment guidelines were fully implemented, whereas the countries seem to be using more saquinavir and nelfinavir than would be required by their current guidelines.
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ABSTRACT: Background. The rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings has greatly increased demand for antiretroviral medicines and raised the importance of good forward planning, especially in the context of the new 2010 WHO treatment guidelines. Methods. Forecasting of the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy from 2010 to 2012 was produced using three approaches: linear projection, country-set targets, and a restricted scenario. Two additional scenarios were then used to project the demand for various antiretroviral medicines under a fast and slower phase-out of stavudine. Results. We projected that between 7.1 million and 8.4 million people would be receiving ART by the end of 2012. Of these, 6.6% will be on second-line therapy. High variation in forecast includes reductions in the demand for d4T and d4T increases in the demand for tenofovir, emtricitabine followed by efavirenz, ritonavir, zidovudine and lopinavir; lamivudine, atazanavir, and nevirapine. Conclusion. Despite the global economic crisis and in response to the revised treatment guidelines, our model forecasts an increasing and shifting demand for antiretrovirals in resource-limited settings not only to provide treatment to new patients, but also to those switching to less toxic regimens.AIDS research and treatment 03/2011; 2011:749041. DOI:10.1155/2011/749041
- AIDS 08/2007; 21 Suppl 4:S1-4. DOI:10.1097/01.aids.0000279700.86309.f6 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mathematical modeling has been applied to a range of policy-level decisions on resource allocation for HIV care and treatment. We describe the application of classic operations research (OR) techniques to address logistical and resource management challenges in HIV treatment scale-up activities in resource-limited countries. We review and categorize several of the major logistical and operational problems encountered over the last decade in the global scale-up of HIV care and antiretroviral treatment for people with AIDS. While there are unique features of HIV care and treatment that pose significant challenges to effective modeling and service improvement, we identify several analogous OR-based solutions that have been developed in the service, industrial, and health sectors. HIV treatment scale-up includes many processes that are amenable to mathematical and simulation modeling, including forecasting future demand for services; locating and sizing facilities for maximal efficiency; and determining optimal staffing levels at clinical centers. Optimization of clinical and logistical processes through modeling may improve outcomes, but successful OR-based interventions will require contextualization of response strategies, including appreciation of both existing health care systems and limitations in local health workforces. The modeling techniques developed in the engineering field of operations research have wide potential application to the variety of logistical problems encountered in HIV treatment scale-up in resource-limited settings. Increasing the number of cross-disciplinary collaborations between engineering and public health will help speed the appropriate development and application of these tools.BMC Health Services Research 02/2008; 8:166. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-8-166 · 1.66 Impact Factor