Article

Pretreatment of curcumin attenuates coagulopathy and renal injury in LPS-induced endotoxemia.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.
Journal of Endotoxin Research (Impact Factor: 3.06). 02/2007; 13(1):15-23. DOI: 10.1177/0968051907078605
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a lethal situation in severe infections, characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. Current clinical trials are not promising. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of curcumin in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by sustained infusion of LPS (10 mg/kg body weight) for 4 h through the tail vein. Curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight) was given intraperitoneally 3 h before LPS infusion. Results showed that, in vivo, curcumin reduced the mortality rate of LPS-infused rats by decreasing the circulating TNF-alpha levels and the consumption of peripheral platelets and plasma fibrinogen. Furthermore, in vivo curcumin also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition in the glomeruli of kidney. These results reveal the therapeutic potential of curcumin in infection-related coagulopathy of DIC.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
127 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) are major mediators of inflammation and inflammation-related diseases, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved blockers of the cytokine, TNF-α, which include chimeric TNF antibody (Infliximab), humanized TNF-α antibody (Humira), and soluble TNF receptor-II (Enbrel). TNF blockers are now being used for the treatment of osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, and ankylosis at a total cumulative market value of more than $20 billion/year. Besides being expensive ($15,000-20,000/person/year), these drugs must be injected and have enough adverse effects to be given a black label warning by the FDA. In the current report, we describe an alternative, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of turmeric (Curcuma longa) that is very inexpensive, orally bioavailable, and highly safe in humans, yet can block TNF-α action and production in in vitro models, in animal models, and in humans. In addition, we provide evidence for curcumin's activities against all of the diseases for which TNF blockers are being used. Mechanisms by which curcumin inhibits the production and the cell signaling pathways activated by this cytokine are also discussed. With health care costs and safety being major issues today, this golden spice may help provide the solution.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human intestinal tract comprises a rich and complex microbial ecosystem. This intestinal microbota provides a large reservoir of potentially toxic molecules, including bacterial endotoxin (ie, lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). This potent inflammatory molecule is detectable in the circulation of healthy individuals, and levels transiently increase following ingestion of energy-rich meals. Chronic exposure to circulating endotoxin has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Western-style meals augment LPS translocation and by this mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of these diseases. By contrast, the gut and other organs have evolved mechanisms to detoxify endotoxin and neutralize the potentially inflammatory qualities of circulating endotoxin. Of specific interest to clinicians is evidence that acute postprandial elevation of circulating endotoxin is dependent on meal composition. In this review, the authors present an overview of the biochemical and cellular mechanisms that lead to endotoxemia, with emphasis on the interplay between microbial and nutrition determinants of this condition. The link between endotoxemia, diet, and changes in the intestinal microbiota raise the possibility that dietary interventions can, at least in part, ameliorate the detrimental outcomes of endotoxemia.
    Nutrition in Clinical Practice 02/2012; 27(2):215-25. · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Currently the treatment mainstay of sepsis is early and appropriate antibiotic therapy, accompanied by aggressive fluid administration, the use of vasopressors when needed and the prompt initiation of measures to support each failing organ. Activated protein C and hydrocortisone, when used accordingly can affect mortality. As the pathophysiologic events that take place during sepsis are being elucidated, new molecules that target each step of those pathways are being tested. However, a lot of those molecules affect various mediators of the sepsis cascade including inflammatory cytokines, cellular receptors, nuclear transcription factors, coagulation activators and apoptosis regulators. Over the last decade, a multitude of clinical trials and animal studies have investigated strategies that aimed to restore immune homeostasis either by reducing inflammation or by stimulating the innate and adaptive immune responses. Antibiotics, statins and other molecules with multipotent immunomodulatory actions have also been studied in the treatment of sepsis.
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 11/2011; 9(11):1013-33. · 3.22 Impact Factor