A microarray gene expression study of the molecular pharmacology of lithium carbonate on mouse brain mRNA to understand the neurobiology of mood stabilization and treatment of bipolar affective disorder.
ABSTRACT Lithium is the most widely prescribed and effective mood-stabilizing drug used for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. To understand how lithium produces changes in the brain, we studied brain mRNA from 10 mice after treatment with lithium and compared them with 10 untreated controls.
We used the MAS 5.0, Smudge miner, GC-RMA and FDR-AME packages of software (Bioconductor, Seattle, Washington, USA) to determine gene expression changes using Affymetrix MOE430E 2.0 microarrays after 2 weeks of lithium treatment.
We used both a false discovery rate (FDR-AME) assessment of significance and the Bonferroni method to correct for the possibility of false-positive changes in gene expression among the 39,000 genes present in each array. Our primary method of analysis was to use t-tests on normalized gene expression intensities. By using a Bonferroni correction of P<1.28x10(-6), we found that 121 genes showed significant changes in expression. The three genes with the most changed mRNA expression were alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2-like 1 (Agxt2l1), c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (Mertk) and sulfotransferase family 1A phenol-preferring member 1 (Sult1a1). Also among the group of 121 genes with significant changes in gene expression that survived Bonferroni correction () were the genes encoding the Per2 period gene (Per2 P=1.33x10(-8), 2.47-fold change), the metabotropic glutamate receptor (Grm3, P=9.48x10(-7), 0.7-fold change) and secretogranin II (Scg2, P=9.48x10(-7), 1.28-fold change) as well as several myelin-related genes and protein phosphatases. By taking a significance value of P<0.05 without Bonferroni or FDR-AME correction, we identified a total of 4474 genes showing changed mRNA expression in response to lithium. FDR-AME analysis showed that 1027 out of these 4474 genes were significantly changed in expression. Among the mRNAs that were significantly changed with t-tests and FDR-AME were several that had already been implicated in response to lithium such as increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA ( t-test P=0.0008-0.0005, FDR-AME P=0.0396-0.0393, 1.44-fold change) beta-phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (Pitpnb, t-test P<0.0000, FDR-AME P=0.003, 1.26-fold change) and inositol (myo)-1(or 4)-monophosphatase 1(Impa1, t test P<0.0000, FDR-AME P=0.004, 1.22-fold change). Of interest in relation to the side effect of hypothyroidism, which is caused by long-term lithium treatment was the fact that we observed changes in mRNA expression in five genes related to thyroxine metabolism. These included deiodinase (Dio2 t-test P=0.000003-0.004, FDR-AME P=0.0048-0.061, 1.53-fold change) and thyroid hormone receptor interactor 12 (Trip12, t-test P=0.003, FDR-AME P=0.075, 1.19-fold change). Of relevance to multiple sclerosis was the observed upregulation of the long isoform of myelin basic protein (t-test P=0.00013, FDR-AME P=0.0169). Changes in mRNA expression were found in 45 genes related to phosphatidylinositol metabolism using uncorrected t-tests but only 13 genes after FDR-AME. Thus, our work confirms the considerable previous research implicating this system. Gene ontology analysis showed that lithium significantly affected a cluster of processes associated with nucleotide and nucleoside metabolism. The analysis showed that there were 170 genes expressing RNA described as having ATP-binding or ATPase activity that had changed mRNA expression. The changes found have been discussed in relation to previous experimental work on the pharmacology of lithium.
- SourceAvailable from: Urs Albrecht[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mood disorders are multifactorial and heterogeneous diseases caused by the interplay of several genetic and environmental factors. In humans, mood disorders are often accompanied by abnormalities in the organization of the circadian system, which normally synchronizes activities and functions of cells and tissues. Studies on animal models suggest that the basic circadian clock mechanism, which runs in essentially all cells, is implicated in the modulation of biological phenomena regulating affective behaviors. In particular, recent findings highlight the importance of the circadian clock mechanisms in neurological pathways involved in mood, such as monoaminergic neurotransmission, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, suprachiasmatic nucleus and olfactory bulb activities, and neurogenesis. Defects at the level of both, the circadian clock mechanism and system, may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders. Modification of the circadian system using chronotherapy appears to be an effective treatment for mood disorders. Additionally, understanding the role of circadian clock mechanisms, which affect the regulation of different mood pathways, will open up the possibility for targeted pharmacological treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).Behavioral Neuroscience 03/2014; DOI:10.1037/a0035883 · 3.25 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rationale Lithium is the mainstay for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). The less active GSK-3β promoter gene variants have been associated with less detrimental clinical features of BD. GSK-3β gene variants and lithium can influence brain gray and white matter structure in psychiatric conditions, so we studied their combined effect in BD. Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ongoing long-term lithium treatment and GSK-3β promoter rs334558 polymorphism on regional gray matter (GM) volumes of patients with BD. Materials and methods GM volumes were estimated with 3.0 Tesla MRI in 150 patients affected by a major depressive episode in course of BD. Duration of lifetime lithium treatment was retrospectively assessed. Analyses were performed by searching for significant effects of lithium and rs334558 in the whole brain. Results The less active GSK-3β rs334558*G gene promoter variant and the long-term administration of lithium were synergistically associated with increased GM volumes in the right frontal lobe, in a large cluster encompassing the boundaries of subgenual and orbitofrontal cortex (including Brodmann areas 25, 11, and 47). Effects of lithium on GM revealed in rs334558*G carriers only, consistent with previously reported clinical effects in these genotype groups, and were proportional to the duration of treatment. Conclusions Lithium and rs334558 influenced GM volumes in areas critical for the generation and control of affect, which have been widely implicated in the process of BD pathophysiology. In the light of the protective effects of lithium on white matter integrity, our results suggest that the clinical effects of lithium associate with a neurotrophic effect on the whole brain, probably mediated by GSK-3β inhibition.Psychopharmacology 10/2014; 232(7). DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3770-4 · 3.99 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Different lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be implicated in bipolar disorder (BD) pathophysiology. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is a key target to evaluate mitochondrial function, but its activity has never been assessed in unmedicated BD or during mood episodes. Also, lithium has been shown to increase ETC gene expression/activity in preclinical models and in postmortem brains of BD subjects, but to date, no study has evaluated lithium's direct effects on ETC activity in vivo.Psychopharmacology 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3655-6 · 3.99 Impact Factor