Traumatic Brain Injury

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0515, USA.
International Anesthesiology Clinics 02/2007; 45(3):119-35. DOI: 10.1097/AIA.0b013e318078cfe7
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Brain injury represents a major health problem and may result in chronic inflammation and neurodegeneration. Due to antiinflammatory effects of gold, we have investigated the cerebral effects of metallic gold particles following a focal brain injury (freeze-lesion) in mice. Gold particles 20-45 microm in size or the vehicle (placebo) were implanted in the cortical tissue followed by a cortical freeze-lesioning. At 1-2 weeks post-injury, brains were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study shows that gold treatment significantly reduces the cerebral levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), oxidative DNA damage (as judged by 8-oxoguanine levels), and pro-apoptotic markers (cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c leakage), when compared to those of controls. The data presented here points toward gold particles as a tool to modulate the cerebral response to injury.
    Brain research 04/2009; 1271:103-13. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.03.022 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is widely used in the diagnosis of TBI. Nowadays, large amount of TBI CT data is stacked in the hospital radiology department. Such data and the associated patient information contain valuable information for clinical diagnosis and outcome prediction. However, current hospital database system does not provide an efficient and intuitive tool for doctors to search out cases relevant to the current study case. In this paper, we present the TBIdoc system: a content-based image retrieval (CBIR) system which works on the TBI CT images. In this web-based system, user can query by uploading CT image slices from one study, retrieval result is a list of TBI cases ranked according to their 3D visual similarity to the query case. Specifically, cases of TBI CT images often present diffuse or focal lesions. In TBIdoc system, these pathological image features are represented as bin-based binary feature vectors. We use the Jaccard-Needham measure as the similarity measurement. Based on these, we propose a 3D similarity measure for computing the similarity score between two series of CT slices. nDCG is used to evaluate the system performance, which shows the system produces satisfactory retrieval results. The system is expected to improve the current hospital data management in TBI and to give better support for the clinical decision-making process. It may also contribute to the computer-aided education in TBI.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 03/2010; DOI:10.1117/12.844092 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A combination of multiple injury types are typically involved in combat-related head injuries. Innovations in firearms, has led to new types of brain injuries from which we are able to learn much about how the brain responds to trauma. Traumatic brain injury is physical injury to brain tissue that temporarily or permanently impairs brain function. Initial treatment consists of ensuring a reliable airway and maintaining adequate ventilation, oxygenation, and blood pressure. Neurosurgical damage control includes early intracranial pressure control; cerebral blood flow preservation; and prevention of secondary cerebral injury from hypoxia, hypotension, and hyperthemia. Evacuation to the nearest neurosurgeon, avoiding diagnostic delays, and initiating cerebral resuscitation allow for the best chance for ultimate functional recovery.
    Medical Journal Armed Forces India 10/2010; 66(4):321-324. DOI:10.1016/S0377-1237(10)80008-5
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