Anemia during pregnancy and treatment with intravenous iron: review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Anemia, the decrease of the hemoglobin concentration with a consequent decrease in the hematocrit level, is a common disorder complicating pregnancies and is mostly due to iron deficiency. The increase of iron requirements, plasma volume, and the poor intake of iron constitute the principal causes of this deficiency. The present review summarizes the current literature regarding anemia during pregnancy and the parenteral iron therapy options.
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ABSTRACT: Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries continues to be a public health problem of significant proportion. At least 50% of the anaemia has been blamed on iron deficiency. In populations where chronic inflammation and iron deficiency anaemia coexist, the criteria to accurately define iron status are not always clear. Similarly, in pregnancy, with marked physiological changes, cut-off points for biochemical parameters need to be re-examined. In this study we examined the diagnostic accuracy of iron parameters including mean cellular volume (MCV), serum iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and its saturation, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), ferritin and serum transferrin receptor (TfR) for the assessment of iron status in a population of anaemic pregnant women in Malawi. Stained bone marrow aspirates were used as the standard for comparison. Results show that for the purpose of screening, serum ferritin is the best single indicator of storage iron provided a cut-off point of 30 microg/l is used. A number of other commonly used parameters of iron status were shown to have limited diagnostic accuracy. Logistic regression was used to obtain mathematical models for the prediction of bone marrow iron status using a combination of available parameters.British Journal of Haematology 01/1999; 103(3):817-24. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy and safety of intravenously administered iron sucrose with versus without adjuvant recombinant human erythropoietin in the treatment of gestational iron-deficiency anemia resistant to therapy with orally administered iron alone. Forty patients with gestational iron-deficiency anemia were randomly assigned to receive intravenously iron sucrose plus recombinant human erythropoietin or iron sucrose alone twice weekly. Target hemoglobin value was 11.0 g/dL. Efficacy measures were reticulocyte count, increase in hematocrit, and time to target hemoglobin level (treatment duration in weeks and need for continued therapy after 4 weeks). Both regimens were effective, but with adjuvant recombinant human erythropoietin the reticulocyte counts were higher from day 4 (P<.01), increases in hematocrit were greater from day 11 (P <.01), and the median duration of therapy was shorter (18 vs 25 days), with more patients reaching the target hemoglobin level by 4 weeks of treatment (n = 19 vs. n = 15). The groups did not differ with respect to maternal-fetal safety parameters. Adjuvant recombinant human erythropoietin safely enhanced the efficacy of iron sucrose in the treatment of gestational iron-deficiency anemia resistant to orally administered iron alone.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2001; 184(4):662-7. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors compared the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in combination with iron with that of iron therapy only in the treatment of postpartum anaemia. Ninety patients (30 patients/group) received either rhEPO (300 U kg-1, i.v. or s.c., once) and iron (parenteral and oral), or iron therapy only. Erythropoiesis was assessed by haemoglobin and haematocrit increase, absolute reticulocyte counting and reticulocyte flow cytometry. Ferrokinetics was assessed by serum ferritin, transferrin and transferrin saturation measurements. There was no difference before therapy for baseline haematological values or iron status. Patients with endogenous EPO levels below 145 mU mL-1 had a significant benefit from intravenous rhEPO administration with highest haematocrit and haemoglobin levels 4 and 14 days after therapy. rhEPO-treated groups showed a higher absolute reticulocyte count 1 and 4 days after therapy and an elevated percentage of high fluorescent reticulocytes (HFRs). Parenteral iron therapy caused a significant increase of ferritin and transferrin saturation, while transferrin concentration decreased. Ferritin and transferrin levels were lowest after i.v. administration of rhEPO, 1 and 4 days after therapy. C-reactive protein concentration was highest in patients who underwent caesarean section until the end of the observation period. A single dose of rhEPO in combination with iron was more effective in treating postpartum anaemia than iron therapy only, in patients who had low EPO levels despite peripartal blood loss. Postpartum low endogenous EPO levels might be a consequence of inhibiting inflammatory cytokines that are released after spontaneous or operative deliveries.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 03/1996; 26(2):123-30. · 3.37 Impact Factor