Dieldrin elicits a widespread DNA repair and antioxidative response in mouse brain.
ABSTRACT Dieldrin is an organochlorine pesticide that is toxic for monoaminergic neurons. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a weak DNA repair response to dieldrin by nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons results in depletion of striatal DA. The activity of the mammalian base excision repair enzyme oxyguanosine glycosylase was utilized as the index of DNA repair. Other measures of oxidative stress were also studied, including the regional distribution of lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The effects of acute and slow infusion of dieldrin on striatal DA levels were biphasic with a transient initial depression followed by increases beyond normal steady-:state levels. Dieldrin administration caused a global oxidative stress evidenced by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in all brain regions, an effect consistent with its capacity to affect mitochondrial bioenergetics. Dieldrin also elicited strong antioxidative and DNA repair responses across the entire mouse brain. Although mitochondrial SOD was not as increased in midbrain as it was in other regions following a cumulative dose of 24 mg/kg, this response, along with the robust DNA repair response, appeared to be sufficient to protect potentially vulnerable DA neurons from cytotoxicity. However, the long-:term consequences of chronic low-:dose dieldrin exposure remain to be studied, especially in light of the concept of "slow excitotoxicity,'' which postulates that even a mild bioenergetic compromise can over time result in the demise of neurons.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) correlates with environmental exposure to pesticides, such as the organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin. Previous studies found an increased concentration of the pesticide in the striatal region of brains of PD patients, and also that dieldrin adversely affects cellular processes associated with PD. These processes include mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species production. However, the mechanism and specific cellular targets responsible for dieldrin-mediated cellular dysfunction and the structural components of dieldrin contributing to its toxicity (toxicophore) have not been fully defined. In order to identify the toxicophore of dieldrin, a structure-activity approach was used, with the toxicity profiles of numerous analogs of dieldrin (including aldrin, endrin, and cis aldrin diol) assessed in PC6-3 cells. The MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were used to monitor cell viability and membrane permeability after treatment with each compound. Cellular assays monitoring ROS production and extracellular dopamine metabolite levels were also used. Structure and stereochemistry for dieldrin were found to be very important for toxicity and other endpoints measured. Small changes in structure for dieldrin (e.g., comparison to the stereoisomer endrin) yielded significant differences in toxicity. The cis-diol metabolite of dieldrin was found to be significantly more toxic than the parent compound, interestingly. Disruption of dopamine catabolism yielded elevated levels of the neurotoxin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, for many organochlorines. Comparisons of the toxicity profiles for each dieldrin analog indicated a structure-specific effect important for elucidating the mechanisms of dieldrin neurotoxicity.Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2013; · 4.19 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dieldrin is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that induces neurotoxicity in the vertebrate central nervous system and impairs reproductive processes in fish. This study examined the molecular events produced by subchronic dietary exposures to 2.95 mg dieldrin/kg feed in the neuroendocrine brain of largemouth bass, an apex predator. Microarrays, proteomics, and pathway analysis were performed to identify genes, proteins, and cell processes altered in the male hypothalamus. Fifty-four genes were induced, and 220 genes were reduced in steady-state levels (p < 0.001; fold change greater than +/- 1.5). Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the biological gene ontology categories of stress response, nucleotide base excision repair, response to toxin, and metabolic processes were significantly impacted by dieldrin. Using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation, 90 proteins in the male hypothalamus were statistically evaluated for changes in protein abundance. Several proteins altered by dieldrin are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases, including apolipoprotein E, microtubule-associated tau protein, enolase 1, stathmin 1a, myelin basic protein, and parvalbumin. Proteins altered by dieldrin were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. This study demonstrates that a subchronic exposure to dieldrin alters the abundance of messenger RNAs and proteins in the hypothalamus that are associated with cell metabolism, cell stability and integrity, stress, and DNA repair.Toxicological Sciences 09/2010; 117(1):190-9. · 4.48 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exposure to dieldrin induces neurotoxic effects in the vertebrate CNS and disrupts reproductive processes in teleost fish. Reproductive impairment observed in fish by dieldrin is likely the result of multiple effects along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, but the molecular signaling cascades are not well characterized. To better elucidate the mode of action of dieldrin in the hypothalamus, this study measured neurotransmitter levels and examined the transcriptomic response in female largemouth bass (LMB) to an acute treatment of dieldrin. Male and female LMB were injected with either vehicle or 10 mg dieldrin/kg and sacrificed after 7 days. There were no significant changes in dopamine or DOPAC concentrations in the neuroendocrine brain of males and females after treatment but GABA levels in females were moderately increased 20-30% in the hypothalamus and cerebellum. In the female hypothalamus, there were 227 transcripts (p<0.001) identified as being differentially regulated by dieldrin. Functional enrichment analysis revealed transcription, DNA repair, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and cell communication, as biological processes over-represented in the microarray analysis. Pathway analysis identified DNA damage, inflammation, regeneration, and Alzheimer's disease as major cell processes and diseases affected by dieldrin. Using multiple bioinformatics approaches, this study demonstrates that the teleostean hypothalamus is a target for dieldrin-induced neurotoxicity and provides mechanistic evidence that dieldrin activates similar cell pathways and biological processes that are also associated with the etiology of human neurological disorders.NeuroToxicology 08/2010; 31(4):356-66. · 3.05 Impact Factor