Article

Activation of the cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase from Paracoccus pantotrophus. Reaction of oxidized enzyme with substrate drives a ligand switch at heme c.

Centre for Metalloprotein Spectroscopy and Biology, School of Chemical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 10/2007; 282(38):28207-15. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M701242200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cytochromes cd(1) are dimeric bacterial nitrite reductases, which contain two hemes per monomer. On reduction of both hemes, the distal ligand of heme d(1) dissociates, creating a vacant coordination site accessible to substrate. Heme c, which transfers electrons from donor proteins into the active site, has histidine/methionine ligands except in the oxidized enzyme from Paracoccus pantotrophus where both ligands are histidine. During reduction of this enzyme, Tyr(25) dissociates from the distal side of heme d(1), and one heme c ligand is replaced by methionine. Activity is associated with histidine/methionine coordination at heme c, and it is believed that P. pantotrophus cytochrome cd(1) is unreactive toward substrate without reductive activation. However, we report here that the oxidized enzyme will react with nitrite to yield a novel species in which heme d(1) is EPR-silent. Magnetic circular dichroism studies indicate that heme d(1) is low-spin Fe(III) but EPR-silent as a result of spin coupling to a radical species formed during the reaction with nitrite. This reaction drives the switch to histidine/methionine ligation at Fe(III) heme c. Thus the enzyme is activated by exposure to its physiological substrate without the necessity of passing through the reduced state. This reactivity toward nitrite is also observed for oxidized cytochrome cd(1) from Pseudomonas stutzeri suggesting a more general involvement of the EPR-silent Fe(III) heme d(1) species in nitrite reduction.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
77 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The DsrMKJOP transmembrane complex has a most important function in dissimilatory sulfur metabolism, not only in many sulfur-oxidizing organisms but also in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Here, we focused on an individual component of this complex, the triheme cytochrome c DsrJ from the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum. In A. vinosum, the signal peptide of DsrJ is not cleaved off but serves as a membrane anchor. Sequence analysis suggested the presence of three heme c species with bis-His, His/Met, and possibly a very unusual His/Cys ligation. A. vinosum DsrJ produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli indeed contained three hemes, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy provided evidence of possible, but only partial, His/Cys heme ligation in one of the hemes. This heme shows heterogeneous coordination, with Met being another candidate ligand. Cysteine 46 was replaced with serine using site-directed mutagenesis, with the mutant protein showing a small decrease in the magnitude of the EPR signal attributed to His/Cys coordination, but identical UV-vis and RR spectra. The redox potentials of the hemes in the wild-type protein were determined to be -20, -200, and -220 mV and were found to be virtually identical in the mutant protein. However, in vivo the same ligand exchange led to a dramatically altered phenotype, highlighting the importance of Cys46. Our results suggest that Cys46 may be involved in catalytic sulfur chemistry rather than electron transfer. Additional in vivo experiments showed that DsrJ can be functionally replaced in A. vinosum by the homologous protein from the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris.
    Biochemistry 09/2010; 49(38):8290-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The last decades have witnessed a steady increase of the social and political awareness for the need of monitoring and controlling environmental and industrial processes. In the case of nitrite ion, due to its potential toxicity for human health, the European Union has recently implemented a number of rules to restrict its level in drinking waters and food products. Although several analytical protocols have been proposed for nitrite quantification, none of them enable a reliable and quick analysis of complex samples. An alternative approach relies on the construction of biosensing devices using stable enzymes, with both high activity and specificity for nitrite. In this paper we review the current state-of-the-art in the field of electrochemical and optical biosensors using nitrite reducing enzymes as biorecognition elements and discuss the opportunities and challenges in this emerging market.
    Sensors 01/2010; 10(12):11530-55. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Six-coordinated heme groups are involved in a large variety of electron transfer reactions because of their ability to exist in both the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) state without any large differences in structure. Our studies on hemes coordinated by two histidines (bis-His) and hemes coordinated by histidine and methionine (His-Met) will be reviewed. In both of these coordination environments, the heme core can exhibit ferric low spin (electron paramagnetic resonance EPR) signals with large gmax values (also called Type I, highly anisotropic low spin, or highly axial low spin, HALS species) as well as rhombic EPR (Type II) signals. In bis-His coordinated hemes rhombic and HALS envelopes are related to the orientation of the His groups with respect to each other such that (i) parallel His planes results in a rhombic signal and (ii) perpendicular His planes results in a HALS signal. Correlation between the structure of the heme and its ligands for heme with His-Met axial ligation and ligand-field parameters, as derived from a large series of cytochrome c variants, show, however, that for such a combination of axial ligands there is no clear-cut difference between the large gmax and the “small g-anisotropy” cases as a result of the relative Met-His arrangements. Nonetheless, a new linear correlation links the average shift 〈δ〉 of the heme methyl groups with the gmax values. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 1064–1082, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The “Published Online” date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com
    Biopolymers 11/2009; 91(12):1064 - 1082. · 2.88 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
28 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014