Article

The gastrointestinal tract stem cell niche.

Histopathology Unit, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London, UK.
Stem Cell Reviews and Reports (Impact Factor: 3.21). 02/2006; 2(3):203-12. DOI: 10.1007/s12015-006-0048-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The gastrointestinal epithelium is unique in that cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis occur in an orderly fashion along the crypt-villus axis. The intestinal crypt is mainly a proliferative compartment, is monoclonal and is maintained by stem cells. The villus represents the differentiated compartment, and is polyclonal as it receives cells from multiple crypts. In the small intestine, cell migration begins near the base of the crypt, and cells migrate from here emerging onto the villi. The basal crypt cells at position 5 are candidate stem cells. As the function of stem cells is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelium, it must self-renew, proliferate, and differentiate within a protective niche. This niche is made up of proliferating and differentiating epithelial cells and surrounding mesenchymal cells. These mesenchymal cells promote the epithelial- mesenchymal crosstalk required to maintain the niche. A stochastic model of cell division has been proposed to explain how a single common ancestral stem cell exists from which all stem cells in a niche are descended. Our group has argued that these crypts then clonally expand by crypt fission, forming two daughters' crypts, and that this is the mechanism by which mutated stem cells or even cancer stem cell clones expand in the colon and in the entire gastrointestinal tract. Until recently, the differentiation potential of stem cells into adult tissues has been thought to be limited to cell lineages in the organ from which they were derived. Bone marrow cells are rare among adult stem cells regarding their abundance and role in the continuous, lifelong, physiological replenishment of circulating cells. In human and mice experiments, we have shown that bone marrow can contribute to the regeneration of intestinal myofibroblasts and thereby after epithelium following damage, through replacing the cells, which maintain the stem cells niche. Little is known about the markers characterizing the stem and transit amplifying populations of the gastrointestinal tract, although musashi-1 and hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 have been proposed. As the mammalian gastrointestinal tract develops from the embryonic gut, it is made up of an endodermally-derived epithelium surrounded by cells of mesoderm origin. Cell signaling between these two tissue layers plays a critical role in coordinating patterning and organogenesis of the gut and its derivatives. Many lines of evidence have revealed that Wnt signaling is the most dominant force in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis along the crypt-villus axis. We have found Wnt messenger RNAs expression in intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts and frizzled messenger RNAs expression in both myofibroblasts and crypt epithelium. Moreover, there are many other factors, for example, bone morphogenetic protein, homeobox, forkhead, hedgehog, homeodomain, and platelet-derived growth factor that are also important to stem cell signaling in the gastrointestinal tract.

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