Recently, the concept that stress hyperglycemia in critically ill patients is an adaptive, beneficial response has been challenged. Two large randomized studies demonstrated that maintenance of normoglycemia with intensive insulin therapy substantially prevents morbidity and reduces mortality in these patients. Since then, questions have been raised about the efficacy in general and in specific subgroups, and about the safety of this therapy with regard to potential harm of brief hypoglycemic episodes and of high-dose insulin administration. These issues are systematically addressed in relation to the available evidence. Intensive insulin therapy during intensive care is effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity of critical illness. The available randomized studies show that an absolute reduction in risk of hospital death of 3 to 4% is to be expected from this therapy in an intention-to-treat analysis. In order to confirm this survival benefit and assign it as statistically significant, future studies should be adequately powered, and hence sample size should be at least 5,000. The absolute reduction in the risk of death increases to approximately 8% when patients are treated with intensive insulin for at least 3 days. Data available thus far indicate that blood glucose control to strict normoglycemia is required to obtain the most clinical benefit. The risk of hypoglycemia increases with this therapy, but it remains unclear whether this is truly harmful in the setting of critical care.
"Reversal of hyperglycemia and its sequelae with insulin therapy therefore has scientific rationale. Insulin in itself may have additional beneficial effects including partial correction of dyslipidemia, prevention of excessive inflammation, and attenuation of the cortisol response to critical illness "
"Based on the negative effects of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients, detected in observational studies, several clinical trials that have tried to prove the benefits of its prevention with intensive insulin therapy with disappointing results. One of the reasons of these results is the potential effect of tight control of glucose blood concentrations causing hypoglycemia [16-18]. In fact hypoglycemia is also associated with negative effect over prognosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Altered blood glucose concentration is commonly observed in patients with sepsis, even among those without hypoglycemic treatments or history of diabetes mellitus. These alterations in blood glucose are potentially detrimental, although the precise relationship with outcome in patients with bacteremia has not been yet determined.
A retrospective cohort study design for analyzing patients with Gram negative rod bacteremia was employed, with the main outcome measure being in-hospital mortality. Patients were stratified in quintiles accordingly deviation of the blood glucose concentration from a central value with lowest mortality. Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used for determining the relationship of same day of bacteremia blood glucose and death.
Of 869 patients identified 63 (7.4%) died. Same day of bacteremia blood glucose concentration had a U-shaped relationship with in-hospital mortality. The lowest mortality (2%) was detected in the range of blood glucose concentration from 150 to 160 mg/dL. Greater deviation of blood glucose concentration from the central value of this range (155 mg/dL, reference value) was directly associated with higher risk of death (p = 0.002, chi for trend). The low-risk group (quintile 1) had a mortality of 3.3%, intermediate-risk group (quintiles 2, 3 and 4) a mortality of 7.1%, and the high-risk group (quintile 5) a mortality of 12.05%. In a multivariable Cox regression model, the hazard ratio for death among patients in the intermediate-risk group as compared with that in the low risk group was 2.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 8.18; P = 0.048), and for the high risk group it was 4.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 12.94; P = 0.01).
Same day of bacteremia blood glucose concentration is related with outcome of patients with Gram-negative rod bacteremia. Lowest mortality is detected in patients with blood glucose concentration in an interval of 150-160 mg/dL. Deviations from these values are associated with an increased risk of death.
"In conjunction with nutrition, the role of hyperglycemia in the critically ill patient has been a cause of significant research within the last decade. While primarily based on two randomized, single-center trials, intensive insulin therapy achieving a mean blood glucose of less than 110 mg/dL reduces mortality by 3% to 4% . Tight glucose control with intravenous insulin infusion thus is recommended. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe disease characterized by gland necrosis and a destructive systemic inflammatory response. Early management involves aggressive resuscitative and supportive measures. Outcomes are primarily determined by the presence of late secondary bacterial infection of the necrotic gland. Early empiric antibiotics and late surgical necrosectomy in the appropriate setting are the keys to managing these sick patients. With appropriate management, mortality can be minimized and long-term quality of life may be restored.
Surgical Clinics of North America 01/2008; 87(6):1431-46, ix. DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2007.08.013 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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