Optimisation of an extraction procedure and chemical characterisation of Croatian propolis tinctures.
ABSTRACT Three spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative determination of different flavonoid groups and total phenolics in Croatian propolis samples were optimised and validated. The assay based on the formation of aluminium chloride complex (with galangin as a standard) was applied to the quantification of flavones and flavonols, while the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method (with pinocembrine as a reference) was used for the quantification of flavanones. Total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method using reference solution of caffeic acid:galangin:pinocembrine (1:1:1). Through analytical validation, the most suitable extraction conditions (with respect to time, temperature and concentration of extraction solvent) were determined, and final conditions for the extraction were established (80% ethanol, 1 h at the room temperature). The appropriate ratio between the mass of raw propolis and the extraction solvent volume was also established. By the application of the optimised method of extraction, 10 propolis tinctures were prepared and subjected to the analysis of general pharmacopoeial parameters, which are fundamental for the creation of quality specification (relative density, dry residue of extract, content of ethanol, methanol and 2-propanol). Additionally, the content of waxes as the main inactive constituents was determined in order to observe the level of their migration from crude propolis to the prepared tinctures.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related mortality in humans in both developed and developing countries. Dietary patterns influence the risk of colon cancer development, while plant-derived foods have gained great interest, due to the high content of antioxidants. Corinthian raisins (Currants, CR) and Sultanas (S) (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are dried vine fruits produced in Greece with many culinary uses in both the Mediterranean and the Western nutrition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CR and S on human colon cancer cells. Methanol extracts of CR and S were used at different concentrations. The total polyphenol content and anti-radical activity were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH, respectively. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects on HT29 cell culture were evaluated. All extracts exhibited DPPH˙ scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner. Both products suppressed cell proliferation, while the levels of glutathione and cyclooxygenase 2 were significantly decreased. A significant reduction in IL-8 levels and NF-kappaB p65 activation was also observed. Both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were dependent on the duration of exposure. Results indicate that the methanol extracts of CR and S exhibit anti-radical activity in vitro, as well as cancer preventive efficacy on colon cancer cells, with S having slightly higher activity. The beneficial properties of these unique dried grapes are attributed to their high content of phenolic compounds.Food & function. 12/2012;
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of pathogens associated with postharvest fruit rots on the four most extensively cultivated apple cultivars (Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, and Fuji) in Greece was surveyed during two consecutive storage periods (2008–09 and 2009–10) in five packinghouses located in northern Greece. The fungi isolated were identified based on their morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer gene sequencing. In the four cultivars sampled, Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea were the predominant pathogens, accounting for averages of 44.2 and 23.6%, respectively, of the pathogens isolated from the sampled fruit. Two other important rot pathogens were Alternaria tenuissima and Mucor pyriformis, account- ing for 16.1 and 6.6%, respectively, of the diseased apple fruit. Other pathogens such as Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, Botryosphaeria ob- tusa, Geotrichum candidum, Fusarium avenaceum, and F. proliferatum were isolated at low frequencies and are considered of minor impor- tance. Measurements of the resistance level of the four apple cultivars to fruit rot caused by P. expansum and Botrytis cinerea revealed that Golden Delicious was the most susceptible to blue mold while Fuji was the most susceptible to gray mold infections. Susceptibility to gray mold was negatively correlated with flavonoid and phenol concentra- tion as well to fruit antioxidant activity, while susceptibility to blue mold was negatively correlated with fruit firmness and phenol concen- tration. Patulin production was significantly higher in Red Delicious and Golden Delicious fruit than in Granny Smith and Fuji fruit and was negatively correlated with the acidity of the fruit. The high incidence of P. expansum and A. tenuissima along with the presence of F. avena- ceum and F. proliferatum, all of which are potentially mycotoxin pro- ducers, emphasize the risk for mycotoxin contamination of apple fruit juices and by-products. Furthermore, information on the distribution of the pathogens on the main cultivars may be useful for the implementa- tion of strategies to control the diseases and minimize the threat of mycotoxin contamination on each cultivar.Plant Disease 06/2011; 96(6):666-672. · 2.74 Impact Factor
Dataset: Minas et al., 2010 PBT