Optimisation of an extraction procedure and chemical characterisation of Croatian propolis tinctures.
ABSTRACT Three spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative determination of different flavonoid groups and total phenolics in Croatian propolis samples were optimised and validated. The assay based on the formation of aluminium chloride complex (with galangin as a standard) was applied to the quantification of flavones and flavonols, while the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method (with pinocembrine as a reference) was used for the quantification of flavanones. Total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method using reference solution of caffeic acid:galangin:pinocembrine (1:1:1). Through analytical validation, the most suitable extraction conditions (with respect to time, temperature and concentration of extraction solvent) were determined, and final conditions for the extraction were established (80% ethanol, 1 h at the room temperature). The appropriate ratio between the mass of raw propolis and the extraction solvent volume was also established. By the application of the optimised method of extraction, 10 propolis tinctures were prepared and subjected to the analysis of general pharmacopoeial parameters, which are fundamental for the creation of quality specification (relative density, dry residue of extract, content of ethanol, methanol and 2-propanol). Additionally, the content of waxes as the main inactive constituents was determined in order to observe the level of their migration from crude propolis to the prepared tinctures.
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ABSTRACT: Chemical variability of propolis is discussed with respect to the problem of standardization. Several chemical types of propolis are formulated, based on their plant source. Reliable criteria for chemical standardization of different propolis types are needed but such generally accepted criteria do not yet exist. The chemical profile of "poplar" propolis, typical for the temperate zone, can be characterized by the following parameters: total flavone and flavonol content, total flavanone and dihydroflavonol content, and total phenolics content. These parameters correlate better with the biological activity and are more informative that the quantification of individual components. There is still a lot of work to be done to achieve standardization of other propolis types. Working with standardized material will allow scientists to connect a particular chemical propolis type to a specific type of biological activity and formulate recommendations for mainstream practitioners.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 09/2005; 100(1-2):114-7. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four compounds were isolated from Brazilian propolis. They are identified as: (1) 3-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (PHCA), (2) 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyrane (DCBEN), (3) 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), and (4) 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DPB). The structures of the compounds were determined by MS and NMR techniques. All compounds were assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi and the bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis. Compounds (1) to (4) were active against T. cruzi. Except (1), all compounds presented activity against the bacteria tested. When compounds (1)-(3) were tested in the guinea pig isolated trachea, all induced a relaxant effect similar to propolis extract.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 03/2001; 74(2):105-12. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Use of propolis by humans has a long history, predated only by the discovery of honey. Use of products containing propolis have resulted in extensive dermal contact and it is now increasingly being used a dietary supplement. Unlike many 'natural' remedies, there is a substantive database on the biological activity and toxicity of propolis indicating it may have many antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral and antitumour properties, among other attributes. Although reports of allergic reactions are not uncommon, propolis is relatively non-toxic, with a no-effect level (NOEL) in a 90-mouse study of 1400 mg/kg body weight/day.Food and Chemical Toxicology 05/1998; 36(4):347-63. · 3.01 Impact Factor