Protracted Sterile Protection with Plasmodium yoelii Pre-erythrocytic Genetically Attenuated Parasite Malaria Vaccines Is Independent of Significant Liver-Stage Persistence and Is Mediated by CD8+ T Cells
ABSTRACT Irradiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccinations confer sterile protection against malaria infection in animal models and humans. Persistent, nonreplicating parasite forms in the liver are presumably necessary for the maintenance of sterile immunity. A novel vaccine approach uses genetically attenuated parasites (GAPs) that undergo arrested development during liver infection. The fate of GAPs after immunization, their persistence in vaccinated animals, and the immune mechanisms that mediate protection are unknown. To examine the developmental defects of genetically attenuated liver stages in vivo, we created deletions of the UIS3 and UIS4 loci in the Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria model (Pyuis3[-] and Pyuis4[-]). The low 50% infectious dose of P. yoelii in BALB/c mice provides the most sensitive infectivity model. We show that P. yoelii GAPs reach the liver, invade hepatocytes, and develop a parasitophorous vacuole but do not significantly persist 40 h after infection. A single dose of Pyuis4(-) sporozoites conferred complete protection, but full protection by Pyuis3(-) sporozoites required at least 2 immunizations. CD8(+) T cells were essential for protection, but CD4(+) T cells were not. Our results show that genetically distinct GAPs confer different degrees of protective efficacy and that live vaccine persistence in the liver is not necessary to sustain long-lasting protection. These findings have important implications for the development of a P. falciparum GAP malaria vaccine.
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- "Additionally, while attenuation by irradiation arrests the parasite development at an early liver stage (Menard et al., 2013), targeting specific genes crucial for various metabolic processes allows for more or less custom design of GAP and production of both early- and late-liver-stage-arresting parasites (Mueller et al., 2005a,b; Aly et al., 2008). GAP have been tested in multiple pre-clinical studies and induced CD8 T-cell-mediated protection in murine malaria models (Labaied et al., 2007; Tarun et al., 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Malaria is a major global health problem, with severe mortality in children living in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is currently no licensed, effective vaccine. However, vaccine-induced protection from Plasmodium infection, the causative agent of malaria, was established for humans in small clinical trials and for rodents in the 1960s. Soon after, a critical role for memory CD8 T cells in vaccine-induced protection against Plasmodium liver-stage infection was established in rodent models and is assumed to apply to humans. However, these seminal early studies have led to only modest advances over the ensuing years in our understanding the basic features of memory CD8 T cells required for protection against liver-stage Plasmodium infection, an issue which has likely impeded the development of effective vaccines for humans. Given the ethical and practical limitations in gaining mechanistic insight from human vaccine and challenge studies, animal models still have an important role in dissecting the basic parameters underlying memory CD8 T-cell immunity to Plasmodium. Here, we will highlight recent data from our own work in the mouse model of Plasmodium infection that identify quantitative and qualitative features of protective memory CD8 T-cell responses. Finally, these lessons will be discussed in the context of recent findings from clinical trials of vaccine-induced protection in controlled human challenge models.Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2014; 5:272. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00272 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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- "Thus, single administration ITV can induce protection against sporozoite challenge at a memory time point even in a stringent B6-Py model. Memory CD8 T cells induced by whole-sporozoite vaccines (RAS, genetically attenuated parasites (GAP), and ITV) have been reported to mediate liver-stage protection against sporozoite challenge     . Thus, we hypothesized that quantitative and/or qualitative features of the CD8 T cell response would account for the enhanced protection following single administration ITV compared to RAS vaccination in B6 mice. "
ABSTRACT: Sporozoite vaccination of both humans and rodents elicits potent anti-malarial immunity, but the dose of sporozoites and the number of immunizations required varies with vaccination approach. Here we examine the immunological basis for superior protection afforded from single-dose vaccination with virulent sporozoites administered under prophylatic chloroquine-cover, referred to as infection-treatment-vaccination (ITV), compared to the well-studied approach of administering radiation-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (RAS). Earlier rodent studies utilizing ITV and RAS vaccination suggested a major role of CD8 T cells in reducing liver parasite burden after sporozoite challenge in a BALB/c mouse model. Consistent with this, we find that in C57Bl/6 mice ITV elicits substantially higher parasite-specific CD8 T cell responses than RAS vaccination and enhances immunity against P. yoelii infection. However, we show ITV-induced CD8 T cells are not necessary for protection following liver-stage sporozoite or blood-stage parasite challenge. Mechanistically, we found protection afforded from single-dose ITV is associated with low grade, transient parasitemia shortly following cessation of chloroquine treatment and generation of potent antibody responses to blood-stage parasites. Collectively, our data show the mechanistic basis for enhanced protective immunity against P. yoelli elicited by ITV in highly susceptible C57Bl/6 mice is independent of CD8 T cells. These studies may be relevant in understanding the potent immunity observed with ITV in humans.Vaccine 12/2013; 32(4). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.11.058 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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- "Wild type P. yoelii strain 17XNL (PyXNL), P. yoelii 17XNL expressing GFP (PyXNL-GFP) , and P. yoelii 17XNL GAP with a deletion at PyUIS4 [Pyuis4(−)]  or PyFabB/F [Pyfabb/f(−)]  were propagated in female Swiss Webster mice (Taconic Farms) and cycled in female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. "
ABSTRACT: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most serious health problems globally and a protective malaria vaccine is desperately needed. Vaccination with attenuated parasites elicits multiple cellular effector mechanisms that lead to Plasmodium liver stage elimination. While granule-mediated cytotoxicity requires contact between CD8+ effector T cells and infected hepatocytes, cytokine secretion should allow parasite killing over longer distances. To better understand the mechanism of parasite elimination in vivo, we monitored the dynamics of CD8+ T cells in the livers of naïve, immunized and sporozoite-infected mice by intravital microscopy. We found that immunization of BALB/c mice with attenuated P. yoelii 17XNL sporozoites significantly increases the velocity of CD8+ T cells patrolling the hepatic microvasculature from 2.69±0.34 μm/min in naïve mice to 5.74±0.66 μm/min, 9.26±0.92 μm/min, and 7.11±0.73 μm/min in mice immunized with irradiated, early genetically attenuated (Pyuis4-deficient), and late genetically attenuated (Pyfabb/f-deficient) parasites, respectively. Sporozoite infection of immunized mice revealed a 97% and 63% reduction in liver stage density and volume, respectively, compared to naïve controls. To examine cellular mechanisms of immunity in situ, naïve mice were passively immunized with hepatic or splenic CD8+ T cells. Unexpectedly, adoptive transfer rendered the motile CD8+ T cells from immunized mice immotile in the liver of P. yoelii infected mice. Similarly, when mice were simultaneously inoculated with viable sporozoites and CD8+ T cells, velocities 18 h later were also significantly reduced to 0.68±0.10 μm/min, 1.53±0.22 μm/min, and 1.06±0.26 μm/min for CD8+ T cells from mice immunized with irradiated wild type sporozoites, Pyfabb/f-deficient parasites, and P. yoelii CS280-288 peptide, respectively. Because immobilized CD8+ T cells are unable to make contact with infected hepatocytes, soluble mediators could potentially play a key role in parasite elimination under these experimental conditions.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70842. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070842 · 3.23 Impact Factor