Mast cells as effector cells: a co-stimulating question.
ABSTRACT Mast cells are currently recognized as effector cells in many settings beyond just allergic reactions, including innate immunity, autoimmunity, chronic inflammatory disorders and atherosclerosis. Signaling pathways of the mast cell response have been widely explored in the past but these are still linked with single axes, such as the high affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, presumably an exclusive determinant of the magnitude of the response to allergen. By contrast, the T cell receptor is viewed as a rich complex of stimulatory and co-stimulatory molecules, setting an array of thresholds to ensure a highly regulated response. Recent observations show that mast cells express various classes of co-stimulatory molecules that modulate their function. These molecules might therefore contribute to the outcome of mast cell-associated pathologies, and constitute new therapeutic targets in such diseases.
Conference Paper: Deuterium Gas Puff And CD/sub 2/ Fiber Array Z-Pinch on SaturnPlasma Science, 1991. IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts., 1991 IEEE International Conference on; 01/1991
Article: Histologie fonctionnelle du derme[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue that interconnect anatomically. The dermis is an integrated system of fibrous and amorphous connective tissue that accommodates nerve and vascular networks, epidermally derived appendages, fibroblasts, macrophages and mast cells. Elastic and collagen tissue are the main types of fibrous connective tissue. The elastic connective tissue is assembled in a continuous network including mature elastic fibers, immature elaunin fibers and oxytalan fibers. Mature elastic fibers and elaunin have microfibrillar and amorphous matrix components while oxytalan fibers only contain microfibrils. Several molecules have been identified as constituents of the elastic fibers. Among the most characterized of these molecules is elastin in amorphous matrix, fibrillins 1 and 2 and LTBP-2 (ligand of latent TGFβ) in microfibrils and fibulins which interconnect elastin and fibrillins. Elastic fibers provides elasticity to the skin. Under electron microscope, collagen fibers appears as of bundles of periodically banded fibrils which are composed of collagens types I, III and V; type V collagen is believed to assist in regulating fibril diameter. They are associated with FACITs (fibril-associated collagen with interrupted triple helixes) collagens types XIV et XVI. Collagen fibers provide tensile strenght to the skin. Non fibrous connective tissue molecules include finely filamentous glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of “the ground substance” (hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate, versican, decorin). Fibroblasts, macrophages and mast cells are regular residents of the dermis. The main function of these cells are well known. Fibroblasts are responsible for the synthesis and the degradation of fibrous and non fibrous connective tissue matrix proteins. Macrophages are phagocytic; they process and present antigen to immunocompetent lymphoid cells. Mast cells are responsible for IgE mediated acute, subacute and chronic inflammation. All these cells have a long list of other functions, in particular they are involved in coagulation, wound healing and tissue remodeling.Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie 01/2008; 135(1):5-20. DOI:10.1016/S0151-9638(08)70206-0 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a neuroimmunoendocrine disease affecting about 1% of the US population, mostly women. It is characterized by debilitating fatigue for six or more months in the absence of cancer or other systemic diseases. Many CFS patients also have fibromyalgia and skin hypersensitivity that worsen with stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and neurotensin (NT), secreted under stress, activate mast cells (MC) necessary for allergic reactions to release inflammatory mediators that could contribute to CFS symptoms.Objective To investigate the effect of isoflavones on the action of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), with or without swim stress, on mouse locomotor activity and inflammatory mediator expression, as well as on human MC activation.Methods Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: (a) control/no-swim, (b) control/swim, (c) poly(I:C)/no swim, and (d) poly(I:C)/swim. Mice were provided with chow low or high in isoflavones for 2 weeks prior to ip injection with 20 mg/kg poly(I:C) followed or not by swim stress for 15 minutes. Locomotor activity was monitored overnight and animals were sacrificed the following day. Brain and skin gene expression, as well as serum levels, of inflammatory mediators were measured. Data were analyzed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test.ResultsPoly(I:C)-treated mice had decreased locomotor activity over 24 hours, and increased serum levels of TNF-¿, IL-6, KC (IL-8/CXCL8 murine homolog), CCL2,3,4,5, CXCL10, as well as brain and skin gene expression of TNF, IL-6, KC (Cxcl1, IL8 murine homolog), CCL2, CCL4, CCL5 and CXCL10. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and NT expression were also increased, but only in the skin, over the same period. High isoflavone diet reversed these effects.Conclusion Poly(I:C) treatment decreased mouse locomotor activity and increased serum levels and brain and skin gene expression of inflammatory mediators. These effects were inhibited by isoflavones that may prove useful in CFS.Journal of Neuroinflammation 10/2014; 11(1):168. DOI:10.1186/s12974-014-0168-5 · 4.90 Impact Factor