Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2007.
ABSTRACT This report updates the 2006 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-10]). The groups of persons for whom vaccination is recommended and the antiviral medications recommended for chemoprophylaxis or treatment (oseltamivir or zanamivir) have not changed. Estimated vaccination coverage remains <50% among certain groups for whom routine annual vaccination is recommended, including young children and adults with risk factors for influenza complications, health-care personnel (HCP), and pregnant women. Strategies to improve vaccination coverage, including use of reminder/recall systems and standing orders programs, should be implemented or expanded. The 2007 recommendations include new and updated information. Principal updates and changes include 1) reemphasizing the importance of administering 2 doses of vaccine to all children aged 6 months--8 years if they have not been vaccinated previously at any time with either live, attenuated influenza vaccine (doses separated by > or =6 weeks) or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (doses separated by > or =4 weeks), with single annual doses in subsequent years; 2) recommending that children aged 6 months--8 years who received only 1 dose in their first year of vaccination receive 2 doses the following year, with single annual doses in subsequent years; 3) highlighting a previous recommendation that all persons, including school-aged children, who want to reduce the risk of becoming ill with influenza or of transmitting influenza to others should be vaccinated; 4) emphasizing that immunization providers should offer influenza vaccine and schedule immunization clinics throughout the influenza season; 5) recommending that health-care facilities consider the level of vaccination coverage among HCP to be one measure of a patient safety quality program and implement policies to encourage HCP vaccination (e.g., obtaining signed statements from HCP who decline influenza vaccination); and 6) using the 2007--2008 trivalent vaccine virus strains A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like (new for this season), A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like, and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like antigens. This report and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu). Updates or supplements to these recommendations (e.g., expanded age or risk group indications for currently licensed vaccines) might be required. Immunization providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information.
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ABSTRACT: Influenza is a considerable health problem all over the world. The most important group for influenza vaccination are children: the highest attack rate during community out-breaks of influenza can be found among school-aged children or their family members; children bear a considerable risk for complications due to influenza, leading to an increased need for healthcare resources (including hospitalization). The high level of vaccine coverage among school children could provide protection against influenza among households and could reduce mortality rates among older individuals. The aim of this study was to estimate the influenza vaccine coverage among children younger than 5 years and to find any trends in influenza vaccine coverage in 2004-2008 in Poland. Official data (number of administrated vaccines and the age of vaccinated individuals) collected by the National Institute of Hygiene, the National Institute of Public Health, and the Central Statistical Office in Poland were analyzed. This data are reported by physicians and collected from reports prepared annually by the Sanitary-Epidemiological Stations at a local level. The vaccine coverage rate was calculated as a percentage of vaccinated individuals among all children under the age of 5 years. The influenza vaccine coverage among children younger than 5 years varied from 1% (2007 and 2008) to 1.9% (2005). The proportion of vaccinated children aged less than 5 compared with the total number of flu shots administrated irrespective of age also varied from 1.4% (2007) to 2% (2005). The influenza vaccination coverage among Polish children aged less than 5 years is low and has persisted at the same level. More educational activities directed both to patients (parents) and healthcare workers would be needed to improve a general knowledge about influenza vaccination benefits among young children.European journal of medical research 11/2010; 15 Suppl 2:102-4. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amantadine inhibits the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus, yet most of the currently circulating strains of the virus carry mutations in the M2 protein that render the virus amantadine-resistant. While most of the research on novel amantadine analogs has revolved around the synthesis of novel adamantane derivatives, we have recently found that other polycyclic scaffolds effectively block the M2 proton channel, including amantadine-resistant mutant channels. In this paper, we have synthesized and characterized a series of pyrrolidine derivatives designed as analogs of amantadine. Inhibition of the wild-type M2 channel and the A/M2-S31N, A/M2-V27A and A/M2-L26F mutant forms of the channel were measured in Xenopus oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp assays. Most of the novel compounds inhibited the wild type ion channel in the low micromolar range. Of note, two of the compounds inhibited the amantadine-resistant A/M2-V27A and A/M2-L26F mutant ion channels with submicromolar and low micromolar IC50, respectively. None of the compounds was found to inhibit the S31N mutant ion channel.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 06/2014; 57(13). DOI:10.1021/jm5005804 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess vaccination status, potential influences upon vaccination status, and attitudes and beliefs about vaccination among hospital inpatients. This prospective, cross-sectional audit assessed vaccination status for important communicable diseases, patient perceptions about the influenza vaccination, and possible influences on vaccination status. Information was collected during face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. This study was undertaken in a general teaching hospital in suburban Adelaide, South Australia. The study participants comprised a convenience sample of 50 inpatients at the hospital from April 25, 2011, to May 18, 2011. Interview and structured questionnaire at bedside. Vaccination status for seasonal influenza, pneumococcal vaccine, diphtheriatetanus-pertussis/diphtheria-tetanus vaccination, herpes zoster virus, and hepatitis B were assessed for inpatients. Qualitative information regarding patient perceptions about the influenza vaccination was also surveyed. Possible influences on vaccination status including comorbidities or high-risk conditions, area of residence, age, and gender were also assessed. The self-reported vaccination rates were: seasonal influenza vaccine 2010 (64%), seasonal influenza vaccine 2011 (52%), pneumococcal vaccine (46%), diphtheria-tetanuspertussis/ diphtheria-tetanus vaccination (70%), herpes zoster vaccination (34%), and hepatitis B vaccination (40%). Vaccination was significantly more common among those older than 64 years of age (P = 0.01), with 46% of patients older than 64 years vaccinated against influenza. There was no significant association between vaccination status and other characteristics such as gender, number of risk factors, recent hospital admission, and living in a residential facility. Regarding perceptions toward the influenza vaccine, the only factor associated with significantly increased likelihood of vaccination was self-reported risk perception (P = 0.03). The majority of patients described positive views about influenza vaccine efficacy and expressed willingness to receive the vaccine if recommended by their doctor. In this audit, vaccination status appeared to be age-dependent, with higher vaccination coverage among older patients. Those who perceived that the influenza vaccine is associated with many side effects were less likely to be vaccinated. Pharmacists may have a role in encouraging older adults to be vaccinated.The Consultant pharmacist: the journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists 08/2012; 27(8):553-63. DOI:10.4140/TCP.n.2012.553