This report updates the 2006 recommendations by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (CDC. Prevention and control of influenza: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-10]). The groups of persons for whom vaccination is recommended and the antiviral medications recommended for chemoprophylaxis or treatment (oseltamivir or zanamivir) have not changed. Estimated vaccination coverage remains <50% among certain groups for whom routine annual vaccination is recommended, including young children and adults with risk factors for influenza complications, health-care personnel (HCP), and pregnant women. Strategies to improve vaccination coverage, including use of reminder/recall systems and standing orders programs, should be implemented or expanded. The 2007 recommendations include new and updated information. Principal updates and changes include 1) reemphasizing the importance of administering 2 doses of vaccine to all children aged 6 months--8 years if they have not been vaccinated previously at any time with either live, attenuated influenza vaccine (doses separated by > or =6 weeks) or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (doses separated by > or =4 weeks), with single annual doses in subsequent years; 2) recommending that children aged 6 months--8 years who received only 1 dose in their first year of vaccination receive 2 doses the following year, with single annual doses in subsequent years; 3) highlighting a previous recommendation that all persons, including school-aged children, who want to reduce the risk of becoming ill with influenza or of transmitting influenza to others should be vaccinated; 4) emphasizing that immunization providers should offer influenza vaccine and schedule immunization clinics throughout the influenza season; 5) recommending that health-care facilities consider the level of vaccination coverage among HCP to be one measure of a patient safety quality program and implement policies to encourage HCP vaccination (e.g., obtaining signed statements from HCP who decline influenza vaccination); and 6) using the 2007--2008 trivalent vaccine virus strains A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 (H1N1)-like (new for this season), A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2)-like, and B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like antigens. This report and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (http://www.cdc.gov/flu). Updates or supplements to these recommendations (e.g., expanded age or risk group indications for currently licensed vaccines) might be required. Immunization providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information.
"Patient with lung cancer, in particular, developed protective antibody responses to influenza vaccine, which did not appear to be affected by systemic steroid treatment, recent chemotherapy, or lung cancer histology.5 Influenza vaccination coverage is currently low among cancer patients undergoing systemic treatment: only 18% in the 18–49-year group and 32% in the 50–64-year group.19 CDC recommends that people who live with or care for a person at high risk for flu-related problems get the flu shot too. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer patients often experience preventable infections, including influenza A and B. These infections can be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The increased risk of infection may be because of either cancer itself or treatment-induced immunosuppression.1 Influenza immunization has been shown to decrease the risk of influenza infection in patients with intact immunity.2 In cancer patients, active immunization has been shown to confer protective immunity against several infections at similar rates to healthy individuals, which has translated into decreased duration and severity of infection and potentially improved morbidity and mortality.3.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 05/2014; 8:57-64. DOI:10.4137/CMO.S13774
"Although hospital-acquired influenza detection and estimates are imprecise, nosocomial influenza is a reality with a potentially significant impact in the elderly hospitalized in short-stay units. While the beneficial effects of vaccinating the elderly are being debated, it appears important to protect this vulnerable population by decreasing its exposure to the virus, by vaccinating healthcare workers and by applying infection control measures including hand washing, disinfection and use of masks . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on influenza in the healthcare setting are often based on retrospective investigations of outbreaks and a few studies described influenza during several consecutive seasons.The aim of the present work is to report data on influenza like illness (ILI) and influenza from 5-year prospective surveillance in a short-stay geriatrics unit.
A short stay geriatrics unit underwent 5 years of ILI surveillance from November 2004 to March 2009, with the aim of describing ILI in a non-outbreak context. The study was proposed to patients who presented ILI, defined as fever >37.8[degree sign]C or cough or sore throat. Among 1,353 admitted patients, 115 presented an ILI, and 34 had hospital-acquired ILI (HA-ILI). Influenza was confirmed in 23 patients, 13 of whom had been vaccinated. Overall attack rates were 2.78% and 0.02% for HA-ILI and HA-confirmed influenza respectively, during the 5 seasons.
This 5-year surveillance study supports the notion that influenza infections are common in hospitals, mostly impacting the elderly hospitalized in short-stay units. It highlights the need for appropriate control measures to prevent HA-ILI in geriatric units and protect elderly patients.
BMC Research Notes 02/2014; 7(1):99. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-99
"Secondly, demand may rise when an influenza epidemic is perceived to be severe or to start early, while demand may decline when influenza epidemic activity is perceived to be mild. Because influenza activity peaks after January in most seasons, epidemic activity usually influences late-season demand . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Annual epidemics of seasonal influenza occur during autumn and winter in temperate regions and have imposed substantial public health and economic burdens. At the global level, these epidemics cause about 3-5 million severe cases of illness and about 0.25-0.5 million deaths each year. Although annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease and its severe outcomes, influenza vaccination coverage rates have been at suboptimal levels in many countries. For instance, the coverage rates among the elderly in 20 developed nations in 2008 ranged from 21% to 78% (median 65%). In the U.S., influenza vaccination levels among elderly population appeared to reach a "plateau" of about 70% after the late 1990s, and levels among child populations have remained at less than 50%. In addition, disparities in the coverage rates across subpopulations within a country present another important public health issue. New approaches are needed for countries striving both to improve their overall coverage rates and to eliminate disparities.
This review article aims to describe a broad conceptual framework of vaccination, and to illustrate four potential determinants of influenza vaccination based on empirical analyses of U.S. nationally representative populations. These determinants include the ongoing influenza epidemic level, mass media reporting on influenza-related topics, reimbursement rate for providers to administer influenza vaccination, and vaccine supply. It additionally proposes specific policy implications, derived from these empirical analyses, to improve the influenza vaccination coverage rate and associated disparities in the U.S., which could be generalizable to other countries.
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