S100B is not a reliable prognostic index in paediatric TBI.
ABSTRACT As far as paediatric traumatic brain injury is concerned, it is difficult to quantify the extent of the primary insult, to monitor secondary changes and to predict neurological outcomes by means of the currently used diagnostic tools: physical examination, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and computed tomography. For this reason, several papers focused on the use of biochemical markers (S100B, neuron-specific enolase) to detect and define the severity of brain damage and predict outcome after traumatic head injury or cardiac arrest.
The aim of this paper is measuring the range of S100B serum concentrations in children affected by traumatic brain injury and describing the possible roles of this protein in the reaction to trauma.
Fifteen children aged 1-15 years were included in the study. Traumatic brain injury severity was defined by paediatric GCS score as mild (9 patients), moderate (2 patients) or severe (4 patients). Blood samples for S100B serum measurement were taken at emergency department admission and after 48 h.
The serum S100B concentration was higher in the group of severe trauma patients, who scored the lowest on the GCS at admission, and among them, the highest values were reported by the children with concomitant peripheral lesions.
The role of S100B in paediatric traumatic brain injury has not been clarified yet, and the interpretation of its increase when the head trauma is associated with other injuries needs the understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms that rule its release in the systemic circulation. The levels of S100B in serum after a brain injury could be related to the mechanical discharge from a destroyed blood-brain barrier, or they could be due to the active expression by the brain, as a part of its involvement in the systemic inflammatory reaction. Early increase of this protein is not a reliable prognostic index of neurological outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury, since even very elevated values are compatible with a complete neurological recovery.
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury is a major health and socioeconomic problem that affects all societies. However, traditional approaches to the classification of clinical severity are the subject of debate and are being supplemented with structural and functional neuroimaging, as the need for biomarkers that reflect elements of the pathogenetic process is widely recognized. Basic science research and developments in the field of proteomics have greatly advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in damage and have led to the discovery and rapid detection of new biomarkers that were not available previously. However, translating this research for patients' benefits remains a challenge. In this article, we summarize new developments, current knowledge and controversies, focusing on the potential role of these biomarkers as diagnostic, prognostic and monitoring tools of brain-injured patients.Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 01/2011; 11(1):65-78. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a global health concern. The majority of TBI's are mild, yet our ability to diagnose and treat mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is lacking. This deficiency results from a variety of issues including the difficulty in interpreting ambiguous clinically presented symptoms, and ineffective imaging techniques. Thus, researchers have begun to explore cellular and molecular based approaches to improve both diagnosis and prognosis. This has been met with a variety of challenges, including difficulty in relating biological markers to current clinical symptoms, and overcoming our lack of fundamental understanding of the pathophysiology of mTBI. However, recent adoption of high throughput technologies and a change in focus from the identification of single to multiple markers has given just optimism to mTBI research. The purpose of this review is to highlight a number of current experimental peripheral blood biomarkers of mTBI, as well as comment on the issues surrounding their clinical application and utility.Frontiers in Neurology 01/2013; 4:44.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines whether serum levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein breakdown products (GFAP-BDP) are elevated in patients with mild and moderate traumatic brain injury compared with controls and whether they are associated with traumatic intracranial lesions on computed tomography (CT) scan (positive CT result) and with having a neurosurgical intervention. This prospective cohort study enrolled adult patients presenting to 3 Level I trauma centers after blunt head trauma with loss of consciousness, amnesia, or disorientation and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 9 to 15. Control groups included normal uninjured controls and trauma controls presenting to the emergency department with orthopedic injuries or a motor vehicle crash without traumatic brain injury. Blood samples were obtained in all patients within 4 hours of injury and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for GFAP-BDP (nanograms/milliliter). Of the 307 patients enrolled, 108 were patients with traumatic brain injury (97 with GCS score 13 to 15 and 11 with GCS score 9 to 12) and 199 were controls (176 normal controls and 16 motor vehicle crash controls and 7 orthopedic controls). Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that early GFAP-BDP levels were able to distinguish patients with traumatic brain injury from uninjured controls with an area under the curve of 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86 to 0.94) and differentiated traumatic brain injury with a GCS score of 15 with an area under the curve of 0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.93). Thirty-two patients with traumatic brain injury (30%) had lesions on CT. The area under these curves for discriminating patients with CT lesions versus those without CT lesions was 0.79 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.89). Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing neurosurgical intervention from no neurosurgical intervention yielded an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.96). GFAP-BDP is detectable in serum within an hour of injury and is associated with measures of injury severity, including the GCS score, CT lesions, and neurosurgical intervention. Further study is required to validate these findings before clinical application.Annals of emergency medicine 11/2011; 59(6):471-83. · 4.23 Impact Factor