Gene duplication and the evolution of vertebrate skeletal mineralization.
ABSTRACT The mineralized skeleton is a critical innovation that evolved early in vertebrate history. The tissues found in dermal skeletons of ancient vertebrates are similar to the dental tissues of modern vertebrates; both consist of a highly mineralized surface hard tissue, enamel or enameloid, more resilient body dentin, and basal bone. Many proteins regulating mineralization of these tissues are evolutionarily related and form the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family. We hypothesize here the duplication histories of SCPP genes and their common ancestors, SPARC and SPARCL1. At around the same time that Paleozoic jawless vertebrates first evolved mineralized skeleton, SPARCL1 arose from SPARC by whole genome duplication. Then both before and after the split of ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish, tandem gene duplication created two types of SCPP genes, each residing on the opposite side of SPARCL1. One type was subsequently used in surface tissue and the other in body tissue. In tetrapods, these two types of SCPP genes were separated by intrachromosomal rearrangement. While new SCPP genes arose by duplication, some old genes were eliminated from the genome. As a consequence, phenogenetic drift occurred: while mineralized skeleton is maintained by natural selection, the underlying genetic basis has changed.
Article: Amelogenin Assembly and FunctionEuropean Journal of Oral Sciences - EUR J ORAL SCI. 01/2006; 114:327-329.
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ABSTRACT: With its theoretical basis firmly established in molecular evolutionary and population genetics, the comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis plays a central role in reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and multigene families, estimating rates of molecular evolution, and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and genomes. The scope of these investigations has now expanded greatly owing to the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques and novel statistical and computational methods. These methods require easy-to-use computer programs. One such effort has been to produce Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, with its focus on facilitating the exploration and analysis of the DNA and protein sequence variation from an evolutionary perspective. Currently in its third major release, MEGA3 contains facilities for automatic and manual sequence alignment, web-based mining of databases, inference of the phylogenetic trees, estimation of evolutionary distances and testing evolutionary hypotheses. This paper provides an overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA.Briefings in Bioinformatics 07/2004; 5(2):150-63. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since 1974, when Slavkin and his collaborators proposed the epithelial origin of cementum, many experiments have been carried out to provide evidence for deposition of enamel-related proteins along the root surface. However, neither amelogenin nor other proteins have fully satisfied expectations. In previous studies, we have identified a novel mRNA coding for an extracellular-like protein which we called amelin. It was expressed at high levels in secretory and postsecretory ameloblasts in rat molars and incisors. In situ hybridization experiments described in the present study also localized the amelin message to epithelial cells adjacent to the peripheral surface of newly deposited dentin in the root end and to cells embedded in cellular cementum in molars. In incisors, the amelin RNA positive cells were detected in the area where cementum formation had been initiated. No amelogenin RNA signal was found in the cells at the root surface. We postulate that the epithelial cells of the root sheath as well as the ameloblasts are synthesizing amelin which might be one of the key proteins coupled to the process of cementogenesis.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 08/1996; 11(7):892-8. · 6.13 Impact Factor