Brain tumor tandem targeting using a combination of monoclonal antibodies attached to biopoly(beta-L-malic acid).
ABSTRACT Tumor-specific targeting using achievements of nanotechnology is a mainstay of increasing efficacy of anti-tumor drugs. To improve drug targeting we covalently conjugated for the first time two different monoclonal antibodies, an anti-mouse transferrin receptor antibody and a mouse autoimmune anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5, onto the drug delivery nanoplatform, poly(beta-L-malic acid). The active anti-tumor drug components attached to the same carrier molecule were antisense oligonucleotides to vascular protein laminin-8. The resulting drug, a new Polycefin variant, was administered intravenously into glioma-bearing xenogeneic animals. The drug delivery system was targeted across mouse endothelial system by the anti-mouse transferring receptor antibody and to the tumor cell surface by the anti-nucleosome antibody 2C5. The targeting efficacies of the Polycefin variants bearing either two antibodies or each single antibody were compared in vitro and in vivo. ELISA confirmed the co-existence of two antibodies on the same nanoplatform molecule and their functional activities. Fluorescence imaging analysis after 24 h of intravenous injection demonstrated significantly higher tumor accumulation of Polycefin variants with the tandem configuration of antibodies than with single antibodies. The results suggest improved efficacy for tandem configuration of antibodies than for single configurations carried by a drug delivery vehicle.
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ABSTRACT: Polymalatase from Physarum polycephalum calalysed the hydrolysis of beta-poly[L-malate] and of the synthetic compounds beta-di(L-malate), beta-tetra(L-malate), beta-tetra(L-malate) beta-propylester, and L-malate beta-methylester. Cyclic beta-tri(L-malate), cyclic beta-tetra(L-malate), and D-malate beta-methylester were not cleaved, but were competitive inhibitors. The O-terminal acetate of beta-tetra(L-malate) was neither a substrate nor an inhibitor. L-Malate was liberated; the Km, Ki and Vmax values were measured. The appearance of comparable amounts of beta-tri(L-malate), and beta-di(L-malate) during the cleavage of beta-tetra(L-malate) indicated a distributive mechanism for small substrates. The accumulation of a series of oligomers, peaking with the 11-mer and 12-mer in the absence of higher intermediates, indicated that the depolymerization of beta-poly(L-malate) was processive. The results indicate that beta-poly(L-malate) is anchored at its OH-terminus by the highly specific binding of the penultimate malyl residue. The malyl moieties beyond 12 residues downstream from the OH-terminus extend into a diffuse second, electrostatic binding site. The catalytic site joins the first binding site, accounting for the cleavage of the polymer into malate residues. It is proposed that the enzyme does not dissociate from beta-poly(L-malate) during hydrolysis, when both sites are filled with the polymer. When only the first binding site is filled, the reaction partitions at each oligomer between hydrolysis and dissociation.European Journal of Biochemistry 09/2000; 267(16):5101-5. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using gene array technology, we recently observed for the first time an up-regulation of laminin alpha4 chain in human gliomas. The data were validated by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR for RNA expression and immunohistochemistry for protein expression. Moreover, increase of the alpha4 chain-containing laminin-8 correlated with poor prognosis for patients with brain gliomas. Therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of laminin-8 expression by a new generation of highly specific and stable antisense oligonucleotides (Morpholino) against chains of laminin-8 could slow or stop the spread of glioma and its recurrence and thus might be a promising approach for glioma therapy. We next sought to establish an in vitro model to test the feasibility of this approach and to optimize conditions for Morpholino treatment. To develop a model, we used human glioblastoma multiforme cell lines M059K and U-87MG cocultured with normal human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEC). Using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that antisense treatment effectively blocked laminin-8 protein synthesis. Antisense oligonucleotides against both alpha4 and beta1 chains of laminin-8 were able to block significantly the invasion of cocultures through Matrigel. On average, the invasion was blocked by 62% in cocultures of U-87MG with HBMVEC and by 53% in cocultures of M059K with HBMVEC. The results show that laminin-8 may contribute to glioma progression and recurrence not only as part of the neovascularization process but also by directly increasing the invasive potential of tumor cells.Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 10/2003; 2(10):985-94. · 5.23 Impact Factor
Article: The extent and severity of vascular leakage as evidence of tumor aggressiveness in high-grade gliomas.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging reveals heterogeneous regions within high-grade gliomas, such as a contrast-enhanced rim, a necrotic core, and non-contrast-enhanced abnormalities. It is unclear which of these regions best describes tumor aggressiveness. We hypothesized that the vascular leakage volume, reflecting disorganized angiogenesis typical of glioblastoma, would be a strong predictor of clinical outcome. The FLAIR tumor volume, post-gadolinium T1 tumor volume, tumor vascular leakage volume determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and volume of the contrast-enhanced rim seen on post-gadolinium T1-weighted images were defined for 20 patients about to undergo treatment for newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas. The potential for imaging characteristics to improve prediction of survival and time to progression over clinical variables was tested by using Cox regression analysis. Single-variable Cox regression analysis of each of the four tumor subvolumes revealed that the vascular leakage volume was the only significant predictor of survival. When the joint effect of clinical variables and the vascular leakage volume were tested for prediction of survival, only the age and the vascular leakage volume were selected as significant predictors. However, when time to progression was tested as a dependent variable, both the vascular leakage volume and the vascular permeability were selected as copredictors, along with surgical status. Our findings suggest that for patients with high-grade glioma, time to progression after radiation therapy is influenced by both underlying biological aggressiveness (vascularity) and volume of aggressive tumor. In contrast, survival depends chiefly on the volume of aggressive tumor at the time of presentation.Cancer Research 10/2006; 66(17):8912-7. · 7.86 Impact Factor