Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

Faculty of Medicine, Juárez University of Durango State (UJED), Durango, Mexico.
BMC Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.61). 02/2007; 7(1):75. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-75
Source: PubMed


Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico.
Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA). Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained.
Thirty two (7.4%) of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45-10.01). The age group of 45-60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25-34 years (p = 0.02). Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8%) than those with 13-19 years of education (4.5%) (p = 0.04). Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection.
The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased with educational level.

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    • "The seroprevalence found in inmates is also higher than the 6.1–13.3% seroprevalences found in healthy and ill populations in Durango City, including blood donors [27], general population [16], patients with visual impairment [28], liver diseases [29], and people occupationally exposed to raw meat [30] and unwashed fruits and vegetables [31]. The seroprevalence found in inmates is comparable with the weighted mean national seroprevalence of T. gondii infection (19.27%) reported in Mexico [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43-5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29-11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed.
    European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 03/2014; 4(1):76-82. DOI:10.1556/EuJMI.4.2014.1.7
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    • "However, the seroprevalence found in migrant workers is higher than seroprevalences reported in urban populations in Durango City. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection ranged between 6.1% and 12% among pregnant women [14], healthy blood donors [15], subjects suffering from a number of underlying diseases [16], and the general population in Durango City [10]. It is likely that differences in sanitation between urban and rural communities may contribute to the differences in seroprevalences. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. Methods We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. Conclusions This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2013; 6(1):113. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-6-113 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    • "gondii IgG in HIV negative individuals. Undercooked meat consumption has been found to be an important factor in parasite transmission in several studies [18,35]. A similar finding was also demonstrated as risk factor for toxoplasmosis in studies done in Slovakia [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease distributed worldwide, is an infection caused by the ubiquitous obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It is a major public health concern because the disease is serious in terms of mortality or physical and /or psychological sequellae in patients with HIV disease. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors in HIV infected and non-infected individuals attending Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Amhara National Regional State. Venous blood samples were collected from 103 HIV infected pre anti-retroviral therapy patients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital and 101 HIV negative apparently healthy voluntary blood donors at the blood bank. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. Socio-demographic and associated risk factors for Toxoplasmosis from each individual were also obtained and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results Of the examined HIV seropositive individuals, 87.4% (90/103) and 10.7% (11/103) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that anti-T. gondii seropositivity was independently significantly associated with undercooked or raw meat consumption (adjusted OR=5.73, 95% CI=1.35-24.39; P=0.02) and having contact with cat (adjusted OR= 4.29, 95% CI=1.08-16.94; P=0.04) in HIV positive individuals. In HIV negative apparently healthy blood donors, prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies were 70.29% and 2.97% for IgG and IgM, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that undercooked or raw meat consumption (adjusted OR=6.45, 95% CI=2.16-19.28; p=0.001) and sex (OR=6.79, 95% CI=2.14-21.60; p=0.001) were independently significantly associated with anti-T. gondii IgG seropositivity, with a significantly higher number of males affected than females. Conclusion The present findings showed a high sero-prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in HIV infected pre-ART and HIV non-infected apparently healthy blood donors in Bahir Dar. Consumption of undercooked or raw meat might greatly contribute towards acquiring T. gondii infection in HIV infected pre-ART and HIV non-infected apparently healthy blood donors. It may be appropriate to include routine serological screening test for determination of anti-T. gondii antibodies in HIV infected pre-ART individuals and HIV negative apparently healthy blood donors. In addition, health education towards avoiding eating undercooked and raw meat, and avoiding contact with cats were recommended.
    Parasites & Vectors 01/2013; 6(1):15. DOI:10.1186/1756-3305-6-15 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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