Human herpesvirus 8 presence and viral load are associated with the progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma
ABSTRACT We present the largest longitudinal study to date that examines the association between Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) disease progression and the presence and viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
Ninety-six men were enrolled at HIV clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, who had KS (n = 47) or were without KS but seropositive for HHV-8. Visits occurred at 6-month intervals for 2 years at which the patient's KS status was evaluated and oral fluid and blood were collected for quantification of HHV-8 DNA and antibodies.
The presence of HHV-8 DNA in blood was more common (P < 0.001) and the viral load higher (P < 0.001) in men with KS in comparison with men without KS. Mean HHV-8 viral loads in blood and oral fluids were associated with disease status, being highest among patients with progressing KS, intermediate among patients with stable KS, and lowest among patients with regressing KS. Consistent with our previous report high antibody titers to HHV-8 orf 65 were inversely associated with HHV-8 shedding in oral fluid.
We observed a significant association between changes in KS disease severity and the presence and viral load of HHV-8. HHV-8 viral load in blood may provide useful information to clinicians for assessment of the risk of further disease progression in patients with KS.
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ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic human virus and the causative agent of three human malignancies: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). In tumors, KSHV establishes latent infection during which it produces no infectious particles. Latently infected cells can enter the lytic replication cycle, and upon provision of appropriate cellular signals, produce progeny virus. PEL, commonly described in patients with AIDS, represents a diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with median survival time less than six months after diagnosis. As tumor suppressor gene TP53 mutations occur rarely in PEL, the aim of this thesis was to investigate whether non-genotoxic activation of the p53 pathway can eradicate malignant PEL cells. This thesis demonstrates that Nutlin-3, a small-molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction, efficiently restored p53 function in PEL cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and massive apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that KSHV infection activated DNA damage signaling, rendering the cells more sensitive to p53-dependent cell death. We also showed in vivo the therapeutic potential of p53 restoration that led to regression of subcutaneous and intraperitoneal PEL tumor xenografts without adversely affecting normal cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that in a small subset of intraperitoneal PEL tumors, spontaneous induction of viral reactivation dramatically impaired Nutlin-3-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. Accordingly, we found that elevated KSHV lytic transcripts correlated with PEL tumor burden in animals and that inhibition of viral reactivation in vitro restored cytotoxic activity of a small-molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction. Latency provides a unique opportunity for KSHV to escape host immune surveillance and to establish persistent infections. However, to maintain viral reservoirs and spread to other hosts, KSHV must be reactivated from latency and enter into the lytic growth phase. We showed that phosphorylation of nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) by viral cyclin-CDK6 is critical for establishment and maintenance of the KSHV latency. In short, this study provides evidence that the switch between latent phase and lytic replication is a critical step that determines the outcome of viral infection and the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies. Our data may thus contribute to development of novel targeted therapies for intervention and treatment of KSHV-associated cancers. Ei saatavilla
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ABSTRACT: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop, but whether peripheral blood viral load is a marker of KS burden (total number of KS lesions), KS progression (the rate of eruption of new KS lesions), or both is unclear. We investigated these relationships in persons with AIDS. Newly diagnosed patients with AIDS-related KS attending Mulago Hospital, in Kampala, Uganda, were assessed for KS burden and progression by questionnaire and medical examination. Venous blood samples were taken for HHV8 load measurements by PCR. Associations were examined with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models and with t-tests. Among 74 patients (59% men), median age was 34.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 28.5-41). HHV8 DNA was detected in 93% and quantified in 77% patients. Median virus load was 3.8 logs10/10(6) peripheral blood cells (IQR 3.4-5.0) and was higher in men than women (4.4 vs. 3.8 logs; p=0.04), in patients with faster (>20 lesions per year) than slower rate of KS lesion eruption (4.5 vs. 3.6 logs; p<0.001), and higher, but not significantly, among patients with more (>median 20 KS lesions) than fewer KS lesions (4.4 vs. 4.0 logs; p=0.16). HHV8 load was unrelated to CD4 lymphocyte count (p=0.23). We show significant association of HHV8 load in peripheral blood with rate of eruption of KS lesions, but not with total lesion count. Our results suggest that viral load increases concurrently with development of new KS lesions.Cancer Letters 06/2008; 263(2):182-8. DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.12.025 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the leading cause of cancer in Uganda and occurs in people with and without HIV. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) replication is important both in transmission of HHV-8 and progression to KS. We characterized the sites and frequency of HHV-8 detection in Ugandans with and without HIV and KS. Participants were enrolled into one of four groups on the basis of HIV and KS status (HIV negative/KS negative, HIV positive/KS negative, HIV negative/KS positive, and HIV positive/KS positive). Participants collected oral swabs daily and clinicians collected oral swabs, anogenital swabs, and plasma samples weekly over 4 weeks. HHV-8 DNA at each site was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 78 participants collected a total of 2063 orals swabs and 358 plasma samples. Of these, 428 (21%) oral swabs and 96 (27%) plasma samples had detectable HHV-8 DNA. HHV-8 was detected more frequently in both the oropharynx of persons with KS (24 (57%) of 42 persons with KS vs. 8 (22%) of 36 persons without, p = 0.002) and the peripheral blood (30 (71%) of 42 persons with KS vs. 8 (22%) of 36 persons without, p<0.001). In a multivariate model, HHV-8 viremia was more frequent among men (IRR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.7-6.2, p<0.001), persons with KS (IRR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-9.0, p = 0.001) and persons with HIV infection (IRR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.7, p = 0.03). Importantly, oral HHV-8 detection predicted the subsequent HHV-8 viremia. HHV-8 viremia was significantly more common when HHV-8 DNA was detected from the oropharynx during the week prior than when oral HHV-8 was not detected (RR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.8-5.9 p<0.001). Genital HHV-8 detection was rare (9 (3%) of 272 swabs). HHV-8 detection is frequent in the oropharynx and peripheral blood of Ugandans with endemic and epidemic KS. Replication at these sites is highly correlated, and viremia is increased in men and those with HIV. The high incidence of HHV-8 replication at multiple anatomic sites may be an important factor leading to and sustaining the high prevalence of KS in Uganda.PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(1):e4222. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0004222 · 3.53 Impact Factor