Human herpesvirus 8 presence and viral load are associated with the progression of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 08/2007; 21(12):1541-5. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282202b7d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We present the largest longitudinal study to date that examines the association between Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) disease progression and the presence and viral load of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
Ninety-six men were enrolled at HIV clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, who had KS (n = 47) or were without KS but seropositive for HHV-8. Visits occurred at 6-month intervals for 2 years at which the patient's KS status was evaluated and oral fluid and blood were collected for quantification of HHV-8 DNA and antibodies.
The presence of HHV-8 DNA in blood was more common (P < 0.001) and the viral load higher (P < 0.001) in men with KS in comparison with men without KS. Mean HHV-8 viral loads in blood and oral fluids were associated with disease status, being highest among patients with progressing KS, intermediate among patients with stable KS, and lowest among patients with regressing KS. Consistent with our previous report high antibody titers to HHV-8 orf 65 were inversely associated with HHV-8 shedding in oral fluid.
We observed a significant association between changes in KS disease severity and the presence and viral load of HHV-8. HHV-8 viral load in blood may provide useful information to clinicians for assessment of the risk of further disease progression in patients with KS.

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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic human virus and the causative agent of three human malignancies: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). In tumors, KSHV establishes latent infection during which it produces no infectious particles. Latently infected cells can enter the lytic replication cycle, and upon provision of appropriate cellular signals, produce progeny virus. PEL, commonly described in patients with AIDS, represents a diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with median survival time less than six months after diagnosis. As tumor suppressor gene TP53 mutations occur rarely in PEL, the aim of this thesis was to investigate whether non-genotoxic activation of the p53 pathway can eradicate malignant PEL cells. This thesis demonstrates that Nutlin-3, a small-molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction, efficiently restored p53 function in PEL cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and massive apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that KSHV infection activated DNA damage signaling, rendering the cells more sensitive to p53-dependent cell death. We also showed in vivo the therapeutic potential of p53 restoration that led to regression of subcutaneous and intraperitoneal PEL tumor xenografts without adversely affecting normal cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that in a small subset of intraperitoneal PEL tumors, spontaneous induction of viral reactivation dramatically impaired Nutlin-3-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. Accordingly, we found that elevated KSHV lytic transcripts correlated with PEL tumor burden in animals and that inhibition of viral reactivation in vitro restored cytotoxic activity of a small-molecule inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 interaction. Latency provides a unique opportunity for KSHV to escape host immune surveillance and to establish persistent infections. However, to maintain viral reservoirs and spread to other hosts, KSHV must be reactivated from latency and enter into the lytic growth phase. We showed that phosphorylation of nucleolar phosphoprotein nucleophosmin (NPM) by viral cyclin-CDK6 is critical for establishment and maintenance of the KSHV latency. In short, this study provides evidence that the switch between latent phase and lytic replication is a critical step that determines the outcome of viral infection and the pathogenesis of KSHV-induced malignancies. Our data may thus contribute to development of novel targeted therapies for intervention and treatment of KSHV-associated cancers. Ei saatavilla
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