Once daily trospium chloride is effective and well tolerated for the treatment of overactive bladder: results from a multicenter phase III trial.
ABSTRACT An extended release formulation of trospium chloride was recently developed for the once daily treatment of overactive bladder. We investigated the safety, efficacy and tolerability of 60 mg trospium chloride once daily.
Subjects with overactive bladder were randomized 1:1 to receive 60 mg trospium chloride once daily or placebo in this 12-week multicenter, parallel, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Primary end points were calculated changes in diary recorded daily urinary frequency and daily urgency urinary incontinence episodes. Secondary end points were urgency severity, volume voided per void and the number of urgency voids per day. Safety was assessed by clinical examination, adverse event monitoring, clinical laboratory values and resting electrocardiograms.
Overall 601 subjects were prescribed trospium once daily (298) or placebo (303). Trospium once daily treatment resulted in significant improvements over placebo in all primary and key secondary efficacy outcomes at weeks 1 through 12. The most common adverse events were dry mouth (trospium 8.7% vs placebo 3%) and constipation (trospium 9.4% vs placebo 1.3%). Central nervous system adverse events were rare (headache with trospium 1.0% vs placebo 2.6%). No clinically meaningful changes in laboratory, physical examination or electrocardiogram parameters were noted.
Trospium once daily provided significant improvements in overactive bladder symptoms (frequency, urgency urinary incontinence and urgency). Efficacy was similar to that seen previously with trospium chloride twice daily, while class effect anticholinergic adverse events occurred at comparatively low levels. Dry mouth was elicited at the lowest reported rate in the oral antimuscarinic drug class.
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ABSTRACT: Overactive bladder (OAB) treatment guidelines recommend antimuscarinics as ﬁrst-line pharmacologic therapy. Mirabegron is a first-in-class β3-adrenoceptor agonist licensed for the treatment of OAB and has shown to be well tolerated and effective in the treatment of OAB symptoms. To assess the relative efficacy and tolerability of OAB medications, specifically mirabegron 50mg versus antimuscarinics in patients with OAB. A systematic literature search was performed on published peer-reviewed articles from 2000 to 2013. This review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying changes in symptoms (micturition frequency, incontinence, and urgency urinary incontinence [UUI] episodes) and incidence of the most frequently reported adverse events (dry mouth, constipation) associated with current OAB medications. The following drugs were considered in addition to mirabegron: darifenacin, tolterodine immediate release (IR) and extended release (ER), oxybutynin IR/ER, trospium, solifenacin, and fesoterodine. Bayesian mixed treatment comparisons (MTCs) were performed for efficacy (micturition, incontinence, UUI) and tolerability (dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision). Overall, 44 RCTs involving 27 309 patients were included. The MTCs showed that mirabegron 50mg was as efficacious as antimuscarinics in reducing the frequency of micturition incontinence and UUI episodes, with the exception of solifenacin 10mg that was more efficacious than mirabegron 50mg in improving micturition frequency and frequency of UUI. Mirabegron 50mg had an incidence of dry mouth similar to placebo and significantly lower than all included antimuscarinics. Mirabegron 50mg had similar efficacy to most antimuscarinics and lower incidence of dry mouth, the most common adverse event reported with antimuscarinics and one of the main causes of discontinuation of treatment. Despite being a powerful tool for evidence-based health care evaluation, the Bayesian MTC method has limitations. Further head-to-head comparisons between mirabegron and antimuscarinics should be conducted to confirm our results.European Urology 11/2013; · 10.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder (OAB) is often associated with a number of co-morbid medical conditions, including diabetes mellitus. This may necessitate several concomitant treatments, thus creating the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Trospium is renally eliminated, not metabolized via cytochrome P450; therefore, cytochrome P450 DDIs are unlikely. However, coadministration with another renally eliminated drug (e.g., metformin) may theoretically result in a DDI. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (plasma and urine) and safety/tolerability of the coadministration of trospium chloride extended release (XR) and metformin under steady-state conditions in healthy male and female subjects. METHODS: In a single-centre, randomized, open-label, two-group, two-period study in healthy males and females aged 18-45 years, 44 subjects received oral metformin 500 mg twice daily for 3.5 days during one period, and oral trospium chloride XR 60 mg once daily for 10 days, followed by trospium chloride XR 60 mg once daily for 4 days plus metformin 500 mg twice daily for 3.5 days during the other period. The two periods occurred in a crossover fashion, separated by a 3-day washout period. RESULTS: Trospium chloride XR coadministration did not alter metformin steady-state pharmacokinetics. Metformin coadministration reduced trospium steady-state maximum plasma concentration (by 34 %) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours (by 29 %). Neither drug's renal clearance was affected. No safety/tolerability issues of concern were observed with coadministration. CONCLUSION: No dosage adjustment is necessary for metformin when coadministered with trospium chloride XR.Clinical Drug Investigation 01/2013; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: To examine pooled efficacy data from three, large phase III studies comparing mirabegron (50 and 100 mg) with placebo, and pooled safety data including additional mirabegron 25 mg and tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg results. METHODS: This prespecified pooled analysis of three randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week studies, evaluated efficacy and safety of once-daily mirabegron 25 mg (safety analysis), 50 or 100 mg (efficacy and safety analyses) and tolterodine ER 4 mg (safety analysis) for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Co-primary efficacy measures were change from baseline to Final Visit in the mean number of incontinence episodes/24 h and mean number of micturitions/24 h. Key secondary efficacy end-points included mean number of urgency episodes/24 h and mean volume voided/micturitions, while other end-points included patient-reported outcomes according to the Treatment Satisfaction-Visual Analogue Scale (TS-VAS) and responder analyses [dry rate (posttreatment), ≥ 50% reduction in incontinence episodes/24 h, ≤ 8 micturitions/24 h (post hoc analysis)]. The safety analysis included adverse event (AE) reporting, laboratory assessments, ECG, postvoid residual volume and vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate). RESULTS: Mirabegron (50 and 100 mg once daily) demonstrated statistically significant improvements compared with placebo for the co-primary end-points, key secondary efficacy variables, TS-VAS and responder analyses (all comparisons p < 0.05). Mirabegron is well tolerated and demonstrates a good safety profile. The most common AEs (≥ 3%) included hypertension, nasopharyngitis and urinary tract infection (UTI); the incidence of hypertensive events and UTIs decreased with increasing dose. For mirabegron, the incidence of the bothersome antimuscarinic AE, dry mouth, was at placebo level and of a lesser magnitude than tolterodine. CONCLUSION: The efficacy and safety of mirabegron are demonstrated in this large pooled clinical trial dataset in patients with OAB.International Journal of Clinical Practice 05/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor