Crystallographic and mass spectrometric characterisation of eIF4E with N7-alkylated cap derivatives.
ABSTRACT Structural complexes of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) with a series of N(7)-alkylated guanosine derivative mRNA cap analogue structures have been characterised. Mass spectrometry was used to determine apparent gas-phase equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)) values of 0.15 microM, 13.6 microM, and 55.7 microM for eIF4E with 7-methyl-GTP (m(7)GTP), GTP, and GMP, respectively. For tight and specific binding to the eIF4E mononucleotide binding site, there seems to be a clear requirement for guanosine derivatives to possess both the delocalised positive charge of the N(7)-methylated guanine system and at least one phosphate group. We show that the N(7)-benzylated monophosphates 7-benzyl-GMP (Bn(7)GMP) and 7-(p-fluorobenzyl)-GMP (FBn(7)GMP) bind eIF4E substantially more tightly than non-N(7)-alkylated guanosine derivatives (K(d) values of 7.0 microM and 2.0 microM, respectively). The eIF4E complex crystal structures with Bn(7)GMP and FBn(7)GMP show that additional favourable contacts of the benzyl groups with eIF4E contribute binding energy that compensates for loss of the beta and gamma-phosphates. The N(7)-benzyl groups pack into a hydrophobic pocket behind the two tryptophan side-chains that are involved in the cation-pi stacking interaction between the cap and the eIF4E mononucleotide binding site. This pocket is formed by an induced fit in which one of the tryptophan residues involved in cap binding flips through 180 degrees relative to structures with N(7)-methylated cap derivatives. This and other observations made here will be useful in the design of new families of eIF4E inhibitors, which may have potential therapeutic applications in cancer.
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ABSTRACT: eIF4E1b, closely related to the canonical translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E1a), cap-binding protein, is highly expressed in mouse, Xenopus and zebrafish oocytes. We have previously characterised eIF4E1b as a component of the CPEB mRNP translation repressor complex along with the eIF4E-binding protein 4E-Transporter, the Xp54/DDX6 RNA helicase and additional RNA-binding proteins. eIF4E1b exhibited only very weak interactions with m7GTP-Sepharose and rather than binding eIF4G, interacted with 4E-T.Here we undertook a detailed examination of both Xenopus and human eIF4E1b interactions with cap analogues using fluorescence titration and homology modeling. The predicted structure of eIF4E1b maintains the α + β fold characteristic of eIF4E proteins and its cap-binding pocket is similarly arranged by critical amino acids: Trp56, Trp102, Glu103, Trp166, Arg112, Arg157, Lys162 and residues of the C-terminal loop. However, we demonstrate that eIF4E1b is three-fold less well able to bind the cap than eIF4E1a, both proteins being highly stimulated by methylation at N7 of guanine. Moreover, eIF4E1b proteins are distinguishable from eIF4E1a by a set of conserved amino acid substitutions, several of which are located near to cap-binding residues. Indeed, eIF4E1b possesses several distinct features, namely enhancement of cap-binding by a benzyl group at N7 position of guanine, a reduced response to increasing length of the phosphate chain and increased binding to a cap separated by a linker from Sepharose, suggesting differences in the arrangement of the protein’s core. In agreement, mutagenesis of the amino acids differentiating eIF4E1b from eIF4E1a reduces cap-binding by eIF4E1a two-fold, demonstrating their role in modulating cap-binding.Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2014; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ribosomal recruitment of cellular mRNAs depends on binding of eIF4F to the mRNA's 5'-terminal 'cap'. The minimal 'cap0' consists of N7-methylguanosine linked to the first nucleotide via a 5'-5' triphosphate (ppp) bridge. Cap0 is further modified by 2'-O-methylation of the next two riboses, yielding 'cap1' (m7GpppNmN) and 'cap2' (m7GpppNmNm). However, some viral RNAs lack 2'-O-methylation, whereas others contain only ppp- at their 5'-end. Interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) are highly expressed effectors of innate immunity that inhibit viral replication by incompletely understood mechanisms. Here, we investigated the ability of IFIT family members to interact with cap1-, cap0- and 5'ppp- mRNAs and inhibit their translation. IFIT1 and IFIT1B showed very high affinity to cap-proximal regions of cap0-mRNAs (K1/2,app ∼9 to 23 nM). The 2'-O-methylation abrogated IFIT1/mRNA interaction, whereas IFIT1B retained the ability to bind cap1-mRNA, albeit with reduced affinity (K1/2,app ∼450 nM). The 5'-terminal regions of 5'ppp-mRNAs were recognized by IFIT5 (K1/2,app ∼400 nM). The activity of individual IFITs in inhibiting initiation on a specific mRNA was determined by their ability to interact with its 5'-terminal region: IFIT1 and IFIT1B efficiently outcompeted eIF4F and abrogated initiation on cap0-mRNAs, whereas inhibition on cap1- and 5'ppp- mRNAs by IFIT1B and IFIT5 was weaker and required higher protein concentrations.Nucleic Acids Research 12/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have previously developed a sensitive and modular homogenous biosensor system using peptides to detect target ligands. By transposing the basic mechanistic principle of the nuclease protection assay into this biosensor framework, we have developed the protease exclusion (PE) assay which can discern antagonists of protein–protein interactions in a rapid, single-step format. We demonstrate the concept with multiple protein–peptide pairs and validate the method by successfully screening a small molecule library for compounds capable of inhibiting the therapeutically relevant p53–Mdm2 interaction. The Protease Exclusion method adds to the compendium of assays available for rapid analyte detection and is particularly suited for drug screening applications.Biosensors & Bioelectronics 06/2014; 56:250–257. · 6.45 Impact Factor