Vascular Resection and Reconstruction for Pancreatic Malignancy: A Single Center Survival Study

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.8). 10/2007; 11(9):1168-74. DOI: 10.1007/s11605-007-0216-x
Source: PubMed


Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the USA. Recently, several centers have introduced portal and superior mesenteric vein resection and reconstruction during extended pancreatectomy, rendering the previously inoperable cases resectable.
The aim of this study is to confirm whether patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer and mesenteric vascular invasion can be cured with extended pancreatectomy with vascular reconstruction (VR) and to compare their survival to patients treated with pancreatectomy without VR and those treated without resection (palliation).
Survival of 22 patients who underwent pancreatectomy with VR was compared with two control groups: 54 patients who underwent pancreatectomy without the need for VR and 28 patients whose pre-operative imaging suggested resectability but whose laparotomy indicated inoperability.
A slight survival benefit was noted in patients who did not require VR (33.5%) compared to those who did require VR [20%, p = 0.18], although not reaching statistical significance. Despite a low 15% three-year survival in patients treated palliatively, this was not statistically different compared to survival after resection with VR (P = 0.23). The presence of nodal metastasis was associated with worse survival (p = 0.006), and the use of adjuvant therapy was associated with better survival (p = 0.001).
Pancreatic cancers that require VR to completely resect the tumor have a similar survival to those not requiring VR. Long-term survival was achievable in approximately 1 out 5 patients requiring VR, although we were not able to demonstrate statistically improved survival compared to palliative care.

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    • "Therefore, vascular invasion is no longer a surgical contraindication, and the rate of surgical resection has greatly increased. Moreover, PD combined with vascular resection can account for 20% to 25% of the total cases of PD surgery in a number of the larger pancreas treatment centers [3], [7]–[8]. Several researchers have compared multiple aspects of PD combined with vascular reconstruction with PD surgery alone, including postoperative complications, mortality, survival, and surgery-related parameters. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to present the therapeutic outcome of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with pancreatoduodenectomy combined with vascular resection and reconstruction in addition to highlighting the mortality/morbidity and main prognostic factors associated with this treatment. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of a total of 566 pancreatic cancer patients who were treated with PD from five teaching hospitals during the period of December 2006-December 2011. This study included 119 (21.0%) patients treated with PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction. We performed a detailed statistical analysis of various factors, including postoperative complications, operative mortality, survival rate, operative time, pathological type, and lymph node metastasis. The median survival time of the 119 cases that received PD combined with vascular resection was 13.3 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 30.3%, 14.1%, and 8.1%, respectively. The postoperative complication incidence was 23.5%, and the mortality rate was 6.7%. For the combined vascular resection group, complications occurred in 28 cases (23.5%). For the group without vascular resection, complications occurred in 37 cases (8.2%). There was significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.001). The degree of tumor differentiation and the occurrence of complications after surgery were independent prognostic factors that determined the patients' long-term survival. Compared with PD without vascular resection, PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction increased the incidence of postoperative complications. However, PD combined with vascular resection and reconstruction could achieve the complete removal of tumors without significantly increasing the mortality rate, and the median survival time was higher than that of patients who underwent palliative treatment. In addition, the two independent factors affecting the postoperative survival time were the degree of tumor differentiation and the presence or absence of postoperative complications.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70340. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070340 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Pancreatic adenocarcinoma usually carries a dismal prognosis due to the late presentation at an unresectable stage of the disease and has a 5-year survival of about 4%.[7] Although the definition of unresectable pancreatic tumor is variable between studies using a combination of criteria ranging from semicircular encasement of the peripancreatic vessels to frank invasion of the vessels or occlusion,[8] and even those with vascular invasion of the portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein have been offered resection with vascular reconstruction.[9] In this study, we used the definition by Evans et al.,[6] which is one of the most common definitions used in the literature. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Identifying patient-related factors as well as symptoms and signs that can predict pancreatic cancer at a resectable stage, which could be used in an attempt to identify patients at an early stage of pancreatic cancer that would be appropriate for surgical resection and those at an unresectable stage be sparred unnecessary surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a major tertiary care, university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study population included individuals who underwent a computed tomography and a pancreatic mass was reported as well as the endoscopic reporting database of endoscopic procedures where the indication was a pancreatic mass, between April 1996 and April 2012. Any patient with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas was included in the analysis. We included patients’ demographic information (age, gender), height, weight, body mass index, historical data (smoking, comorbidities), symptoms (abdominal pain and its duration, anorexia and its duration, weight loss and its amount, and over what duration, vomiting, abdominal distention, itching and its duration, change in bowel movements, change in urine color), jaundice and its duration. Other variables were also collected including laboratory values, location of the mass, the investigation undertaken, and the stage of the tumor. Results: A total of 61 patients were included, the mean age was 61.2 ± 1.51 years, 25 (41%) were females. The tumors were located in the head (83.6%), body (10.9%), tail (1.8%), and in multiple locations (3.6%) of the pancreas. Half of the patients (50%) had Stage IV, 16.7% stages IIB and III, and only 8.3% were stages IB and IIA. On univariable analysis a lower hemoglobin level predicted resectability odds ratio 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.98), whereas on multivariable regression none of the variables included in the model could predict resectability of pancreatic cancer. A CA 19-9 cutoff level of 166 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 75%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.6, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.15 for resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: This study describes the clinical characteristics of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma in Saudi Arabia. None of the clinical or laboratory variables that were included in our study could independently predict resectability of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Further studies are warranted to validate these results.
    Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; 19(6):278-85. DOI:10.4103/1319-3767.121036 · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    • "They concluded that in case of para-aortic nodal metastasis extended resection should not be considered [15]. This statement may be underlined by the recent results from the Mayo Clinic, in which they demonstrated in 104 patients with pancreatic carcinoma that the presence of regional nodal metastasis was associated with a poor survival (p = 0.006) [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor related pancreatic surgery has progressed significantly during recent years. Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) with lymphadenectomy, including vascular resection, still presents the optimal surgical procedure for carcinomas in the head of pancreas. For patients with small or low-grade malignant neoplasms, as well as small pancreatic metastases located in the mid-portion of pancreas, central pancreatectomy (CP) is emerging as a safe and effective option with a low risk of developing de-novo exocrine and/or endocrine insufficiency. Total pancreatectomy (TP) is not as risky as it was years ago and can nowadays safely be performed, but its indication is limited to locally extended tumors that cannot be removed by PD or distal pancreatectomy (DP) with tumor free surgical margins. Consequently, TP has not been adopted as a routine procedure by most surgeons. On the other hand, an aggressive attitude is required in case of advanced distal pancreatic tumors, provided that safe and experienced surgery is available. Due to the development of modern instruments, laparoscopic operations became more and more successful, even in malignant pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes the recent literature on the above mentioned topics.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2008; 6(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-6-123 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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