Article

Frailty and risk of falls, fracture, and mortality in older women: the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

Center for Chronic Disease Outcomes Research, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA.
The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.98). 07/2007; 62(7):744-51. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/62.7.744
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A standard phenotype of frailty was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes including mortality in a recent study of older adults. However, the predictive validity of this phenotype for fracture outcomes and across risk subgroups is uncertain.
To determine whether a standard frailty phenotype was independently associated with risk of adverse health outcomes in older women and to evaluate the consistency of associations across risk subgroups defined by age and body mass index (BMI), we ascertained frailty status in a cohort of 6724 women>or=69 years and followed them prospectively for incident falls, fractures, and mortality. Frailty was defined by the presence of three or more of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported poor energy, slow walking speed, and low physical activity. Incident recurrent falls were defined as at least two falls during the subsequent year. Incident fractures (confirmed with x-ray reports), including hip fractures, and deaths were ascertained during an average of 9 years of follow-up.
After controlling for multiple confounders such as age, health status, medical conditions, functional status, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and bone mineral density, frail women were subsequently at increased risk of recurrent falls (multivariate odds ratio=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.88), hip fracture (multivariate hazards ratio [MHR]=1.40, 95% CI, 1.03-1.90), any nonspine fracture (MHR=1.25, 95% CI, 1.05-1.49), and death (MHR=1.82, 95% CI, 1.56-2.13). The associations between frailty and these outcomes persisted among women>or=80 years. In addition, associations between frailty and an increased risk of falls, fracture, and mortality were consistently observed across categories of BMI, including BMI>or=30 kg/m2.
Frailty is an independent predictor of adverse health outcomes in older women, including very elderly women and older obese women.

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    • "E.g., up to 12% of all falls in the elderly are followed by a fracture, and 23% of trauma-related deaths in patients >65 years and 34% in those >85 years follow a fall [11,13]. The relationship among frailty and falls has been investigated in some studies based on the frailty phenotypic model and its variants [14-17], but few have studied the relationship using the continuous FI. More evidence regarding the relationship between frailty and falls with the use of a FI will be helpful at a clinical research level and at a health care policy level [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background To investigate the association between frailty index (FI) of deficit accumulation and risk of falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations in women aged 55 years and older. Methods The data were from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) Hamilton Cohort. In this 3-year longitudinal, observational cohort study, women (N = 3,985) aged ≥55 years were enrolled between May 2008 and March 2009 in Hamilton, Canada. A FI including co-morbidities, activities of daily living, symptoms and signs, and healthcare utilization was constructed using 34 health deficits at baseline. Relationship between the FI and falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations was examined. Results The FI was significantly associated with age, with a mean rate of deficit accumulation across baseline age of 0.004 or 0.021 (on a log scale) per year. During the third year of follow-up, 1,068 (31.89%) women reported at least one fall. Each increment of 0.01 on the FI was associated with a significantly increased risk of falls during the third year of follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.03). The area under the curve (AUC) of the predictive model was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67-0.71). Results of subgroup and sensitivity analyses indicated the relationship between the FI and risk of falls was robust, while bootstrap analysis judged its internal validation. The FI was significantly related to fractures (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), death (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06) during the 3-year follow-up period and overnight hospitalizations (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.02-1.03) for an increase of 0.01 on the FI during the third year of follow-up. Measured by per standard deviation (SD) increment of the FI, the ORs were 1.21 and 1.40 for falls and death respectively, while the HR was 1.17 for fractures and the IRR was 1.18 for overnight hospitalizations respectively. Conclusion The FI of deficit accumulation increased with chronological age significantly. The FI was associated with and predicted increased risk of falls, fractures, death and overnight hospitalizations significantly.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 05/2014; 15(1):185. DOI:10.1186/1471-2474-15-185 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    • "People with three or more criteria are considered frail and those with one to two are considered intermediate or prefrail. The model has been adapted for use across many ageing cohort studies.6364656667 A pared down version incorporating weight loss, exhaustion and impaired chair rising has also been proposed by the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) group.4959 "
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    ABSTRACT: Androgens have potent anabolic effects on skeletal muscle and decline with age in parallel to losses in muscle mass and strength. This loss of muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is the central event in development of frailty, the vulnerable health status that presages adverse outcomes and rapid functional decline in older adults. The potential role of falling androgen levels in the development of frailty and their utility as function promoting therapies in older men has therefore attracted considerable attention. This review summarizes current concepts and definitions in muscle ageing, sarcopenia and frailty, and evaluates recent developments in the study of androgens and frailty. Current evidence from observational and interventional studies strongly supports an effect of androgens on muscle mass in ageing men, but effects on muscle strength and particularly physical function have been less clear. Androgen treatment has been generally well-tolerated in studies of older men, but concerns remain over higher dose treatments and use in populations with high cardiovascular risk. The first trials of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) suggest similar effects on muscle mass and function to traditional androgen therapies in older adults. Important future directions include the use of these agents in combination with exercise training to promote functional ability across different populations of older adults, as well as more focus on the relationships between concurrent changes in hormone levels, body composition and physical function in observational studies.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 01/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.122581 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Their results can possibly be explained by the fact that an index of accumulated deficits to measure frailty as used in their study, and containing 33 items (versus 5 and 3 items in the CHS and SOF, respectively) could be a more sensitive test for this purpose. Also in contrast to our findings, Ensrud et al demonstrated that frailty is an independent predictor for recurrent falls in a large cohort of community-dwelling older women [43]. A possible explanation to this incongruous finding may be the fact that hospitalized people assessed as frail in our study do not fall more frequently as they are too weak or too sick to get up and walk and are kept under close surveillance during their hospital stay. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and significance of frailty are seldom studied in hospitalized patients. Aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of frailty and to determine the extent that frailty predicts delirium, falls and mortality in hospitalized older patients. In a prospective study of 220 older patients, frailty was determined using the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) frailty index. Patients were classified as nonfrail, prefrail, and frail, according to the specific criteria. Covariates included clinical and laboratory parameters. Outcome variables included in hospital delirium and falls, and 6-month mortality. The CHS frailty index was available in all 220 patients, of which 1.5% were classified as being nonfrail, 58.5% as prefrail, and 40% as frail. The SOF frailty index was available in 204 patients, of which 16% were classified as being nonfrail, 51.5% as prefrail, and 32.5% as frail. Frailty, as identified by the CHS and SOF indexes, was a significant risk factor for 6-month mortality. However, after adjustment for multiple risk factors, frailty remained a strong independent risk factor only for the model with the CHS index (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-12.8). Frailty (identified by CHS and SOF indexes) was not found to be a risk factor for delirium or falls. Frailty, as measured by the CHS index, is an independent risk factor for 6-month mortality. The CHS and the SOF indexes have limited value as risk assessment tools for specific geriatric syndromes (e.g., falls and delirium) in hospitalized older patients.
    BMC Geriatrics 01/2014; 14(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1471-2318-14-1 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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