Fgf8 induces pillar cell fate and regulates cellular patterning in the mammalian cochlea
ABSTRACT The mammalian auditory sensory epithelium (the organ of Corti) contains a number of unique cell types that are arranged in ordered rows. Two of these cell types, inner and outer pillar cells (PCs), are arranged in adjacent rows that form a boundary between a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs). PCs are required for auditory function, as mice lacking PCs owing to a mutation in Fgfr3 are deaf. Here, using in vitro and in vivo techniques, we demonstrate that an Fgf8 signal arising from the inner hair cells is the key component in an inductive pathway that regulates the number, position and rate of development of PCs. Deletion of Fgf8 or inhibition of binding between Fgf8 and Fgfr3 leads to defects in PC development, whereas overexpression of Fgf8 or exogenous Fgfr3 activation induces ectopic PC formation and inhibits OHC development. These results suggest that Fgf8-Fgfr3 interactions regulate cellular patterning within the organ of Corti through the induction of one cell fate (PC) and simultaneous inhibition of an alternate fate (OHC) in separate progenitor cells. Some of the effects of both inhibition and overactivation of the Fgf8-Fgfr3 signaling pathway are reversible, suggesting that PC differentiation is dependent upon constant activation of Fgfr3 by Fgf8. These results suggest that PCs might exist in a transient state of differentiation that makes them potential targets for regenerative therapies.
- SourceAvailable from: Raymond Romand
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hearing restoration through hair cell regeneration will require revealing the dynamic interactions between proliferation and differentiation during development to avoid the limited viability of regenerated hair cells. Pax2-Cre N-Myc conditional knockout (CKO) mice highlighted the need of N-Myc for proper neurosensory development and possible redundancy with L-Myc. The late-onset hair cell death in the absence of early N-Myc expression could be due to mis-regulation of genes necessary for neurosensory formation and maintenance, such as Neurod1, Atoh1, Pou4f3, and Barhl1. RESULTS: Pax2-Cre N-Myc L-Myc double CKO mice show that proliferation and differentiation are linked together through Myc and in the absence of both Mycs, altered proliferation and differentiation results in morphologically abnormal ears. In particular, the organ of Corti apex is re-patterned into a vestibular-like organization and the base is truncated and fused with the saccule. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that therapeutic approaches to restore hair cells must take into account a dynamic interaction of proliferation and differentiation regulation of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors in attempts to stably replace lost cochlear hair cells. In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.Developmental Dynamics 02/2013; 242(2). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.23910 · 2.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The tetrapod auditory system transmits sound through the outer and middle ear to the organ of Corti or other sound pressure receivers of the inner ear where specialized hair cells translate vibrations of the basilar membrane into electrical potential changes that are conducted by the spiral ganglion neurons to the auditory nuclei. In other systems, notably the vertebrate limb, a detailed connection between the evolutionary variations in adaptive morphology and the underlying alterations in the genetic basis of development has been partially elucidated. In this review, we attempt to correlate evolutionary and partially characterized molecular data into a cohesive perspective of the evolution of the mammalian organ of Corti out of the tetrapod basilar papilla. We propose a stepwise, molecularly partially characterized transformation of the ancestral, vestibular developmental program of the vertebrate ear. This review provides a framework to decipher both discrete steps in development and the evolution of unique functional adaptations of the auditory system. The combined analysis of evolution and development establishes a powerful cross-correlation where conclusions derived from either approach become more meaningful in a larger context which is not possible through exclusively evolution or development centered perspectives. Selection may explain the survival of the fittest auditory system, but only developmental genetics can explain the arrival of the fittest auditory system. [Modified after (Wagner 2011)].Evolution & Development 01/2013; 15(1):63-79. DOI:10.1111/ede.12015 · 2.68 Impact Factor