An aluminum-activated citrate transporter in barley.

Research Institute for Bioresources, Okayama University, Chuo, Kurashiki, Okayama, 710-0046, Japan.
Plant and Cell Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 09/2007; 48(8):1081-91. DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pcm091
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Soluble ionic aluminum (Al) inhibits root growth and reduces crop production on acid soils. Al-resistant cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detoxify Al by secreting citrate from the roots, but the responsible gene has not been identified yet. Here, we identified a gene (HvAACT1) responsible for the Al-activated citrate secretion by fine mapping combined with microarray analysis, using an Al-resistant cultivar, Murasakimochi, and an Al-sensitive cultivar, Morex. This gene belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family and was constitutively expressed mainly in the roots of the Al-resistant barley cultivar. Heterologous expression of HvAACT1 in Xenopus oocytes showed efflux activity for (14)C-labeled citrate, but not for malate. Two-electrode voltage clamp analysis also showed transport activity of citrate in the HvAACT1-expressing oocytes in the presence of Al. Overexpression of this gene in tobacco enhanced citrate secretion and Al resistance compared with the wild-type plants. Transiently expressed green fluorescent protein-tagged HvAACT1 was localized at the plasma membrane of the onion epidermal cells, and immunostaining showed that HvAACT1 was localized in the epidermal cells of the barley root tips. A good correlation was found between the expression of HvAACT1 and citrate secretion in 10 barley cultivars differing in Al resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HvAACT1 is an Al-activated citrate transporter responsible for Al resistance in barley.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Higher plants possess a multitude of Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR) transporter homologs that group into three distinct and ubiquitous families-the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily, the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS), and the Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family. As in other organisms, such as fungi, mammals, and bacteria, MDR transporters make a primary contribution to cellular detoxification processes in plants, mainly through the extrusion of toxic compounds from the cell or their sequestration in the central vacuole. This review aims at summarizing the currently available information on the in vivo roles of MDR transporters in plant systems. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that the biological functions of ABC, MFS, and MATE carriers are not restricted to xenobiotic and metal detoxification. Importantly, the activity of plant MDR transporters also mediates biotic stress resistance and is instrumental in numerous physiological processes essential for optimal plant growth and development, including the regulation of ion homeostasis and polar transport of the phytohormone auxin.
    Frontiers in physiology. 01/2014; 5:201.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Key message VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative PA transporters expressed during seed development in grapevine. The subcellular localization of these MATE proteins suggests different routes for the intracellular transport of PAs. Abstract Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also called condensed tannins, protect plants against herbivores and are important quality components of many fruits. PAs biosynthesis is part of the flavonoid pathway that also produces anthocyanins and flavonols. In grape fruits, PAs are present in seeds and skin tissues. PAs are synthesized in the cytoplasm and accumulated into the vacuole and apoplast; however, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the transport of these compounds to such cellular compartments. A gene encoding a Multidrug And Toxic compound Extrusion (MATE) family protein suggested to transport anthocyanins—named VvMATE1—was used to identify a second gene of the MATE family, VvMATE2. Analysis of their deduced amino acid sequences and the phylogenetic relationship with other MATE-like proteins indicated that VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 encode putative PA transporters. Subcellular localization assays in Arabidopsis protoplasts transformed with VvMATE–GFP fusion constructs along with organelle-specific markers revealed that VvMATE1 is localized in the tonoplast whereas VvMATE2 is localized in the Golgi complex. Major expression of both genes occurs during the early stages of seed development concomitant with the accumulation of PAs. Both genes are poorly expressed in the skin of berries while VvMATE2 is also expressed in leaves. The presence of putative cis-acting elements in the promoters of VvMATE1 and VvMATE2 may explain the differential transcriptional regulation of these genes in grapevine. Altogether, these results suggest that these MATE proteins could mediate the transport and accumulation of PAs in grapevine through different routes and cellular compartments.
    Plant Cell Reports 07/2014; 33(7). · 2.94 Impact Factor
  • Source

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014