Aerobic degradation of lindane (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane) in bacteria and its biochemical and molecular basis.
ABSTRACT gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH, also called gamma-BHC and lindane) is a halogenated organic insecticide that causes serious environmental problems. The aerobic degradation pathway of gamma-HCH was extensively revealed in bacterial strain Sphingobium japonicum (formerly Sphingomonas paucimobilis) UT26. gamma-HCH is transformed to 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone through sequential reactions catalyzed by LinA, LinB, and LinC, and then 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone is further metabolized by LinD, LinE, LinF, LinGH, and LinJ to succinyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, which are metabolized in the citrate/tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to these catalytic enzymes, a putative ABC-type transporter system encoded by linKLMN is also essential for the gamma-HCH utilization in UT26. Preliminary examination of the complete genome sequence of UT26 clearly demonstrated that lin genes for the gamma-HCH utilization are dispersed on three large circular replicons with sizes of 3.5 Mb, 682 kb, and 191 kb. Nearly identical lin genes were also found in other HCH-degrading bacterial strains, and it has been suggested that the distribution of lin genes is mainly mediated by insertion sequence IS6100 and plasmids. Recently, it was revealed that two dehalogenases, LinA and LinB, have variants with small number of amino acid differences, and they showed dramatic functional differences for the degradation of HCH isomers, indicating these enzymes are still evolving at high speed.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial dehalogenases catalyse the cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds, which is a key step in aerobic mineralization pathways of many halogenated compounds that occur as environmental pollutants. There is a broad range of dehalogenases, which can be classified in different protein superfamilies and have fundamentally different catalytic mechanisms. Identical dehalogenases have repeatedly been detected in organisms that were isolated at different geographical locations, indicating that only a restricted number of sequences are used for a certain dehalogenation reaction in organohalogen-utilizing organisms. At the same time, massive random sequencing of environmental DNA, and microbial genome sequencing projects have shown that there is a large diversity of dehalogenase sequences that is not employed by known catabolic pathways. The corresponding proteins may have novel functions and selectivities that could be valuable for biotransformations in the future. Apparently, traditional enrichment and metagenome approaches explore different segments of sequence space. This is also observed with alkane hydroxylases, a category of proteins that can be detected on basis of conserved sequence motifs and for which a large number of sequences has been found in isolated bacterial cultures and genomic databases. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward synthetic organohalogens and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals.Environmental Microbiology 01/2006; 7(12):1868-82. · 5.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sphingobium japonicum (formerly Sphingomonas paucimobilis) UT26 utilizes the important insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy. In previous studies, we isolated and characterized six structural genes (linA to linF) and one regulatory gene (linR) of UT26 for the degradation of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane to beta-ketoadipate. Our analysis in this study indicated that the UT26 genome consists of three large circular replicons of 3.6 Mb, 670 kb, and 185 kb. The 3.6 Mb and the 670 kb replicons had one and two copies, respectively, of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and these replicons were designated as chromosomes (Chr) I and II, respectively. Chr I was indicated to be a main chromosome carrying the dnaA gene. The first three lin genes, linA to linC, for conversion of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane to 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone, were dispersed on Chr I. The 185 kb plasmid, pCHQ1, carried the linRED operon for the conversion of 2,5-dichlorohydroquinone to maleylacetate and was conjugatively transferred to another sphingomonad strain. The linF gene encoding maleylacetate reductase was located on Chr II. These results indicated that the genes for the complete gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane degradation are dispersed on the three large replicons of UT26.FEMS Microbiology Letters 04/2006; 256(1):112-8. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sphingomonas paucimobilis UT26 utilizes gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) as a sole source of carbon and energy. In our previous study, we cloned and characterized genes that are involved in the conversion of gamma-HCH to maleylacetate (MA) via chlorohydroquinone (CHQ) in UT26. In this study, we identified and characterized an MA reductase gene, designated linF, that is essential for the utilization of gamma-HCH in UT26. A gene named linEb, whose deduced product showed significant identity to LinE (53%), was located close to linF. LinE is a novel type of ring cleavage dioxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of CHQ to MA. LinEb expressed in Escherichia coli transformed CHQ and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone to MA and 2-chloromaleylacetate, respectively. Our previous and present results indicate that UT26 (i) has two gene clusters for degradation of chlorinated aromatic compounds via hydroquinone-type intermediates and (ii) uses at least parts of both clusters for gamma-HCH utilization.Journal of Bacteriology 03/2005; 187(3):847-53. · 3.19 Impact Factor