Loss of IFN gamma receptor is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian cancer.
ABSTRACT There is evidence that IFN gamma plays an important role in ovarian cancer development. IFN gamma produces numerous antitumor effects and it may be evasion of these effects which allows tumor progression. We postulate that genetic instability in tumor cells may lead to modulation of expression of the IFN gamma receptor, thus leading to altered tumor biology and patient prognosis. This hypothesis would support the theory of immunoediting in ovarian cancer.
Using tissue microarray technology of 339 primary ovarian cancers, the expression of IFN gamma receptor was assessed immunohistochemically. Coupled to a comprehensive database of clinicopathologic variables, its effect on these factors was studied.
Tumors expressing high levels of IFN gamma receptor had significantly improved survival (P=0.017) compared with tumors expressing low levels of the receptor; this was also seen with complete receptor loss (P=0.014). Factors shown to predict prognosis independently of each other were the following: age, International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stage, and the absence of macroscopic disease after surgery. The level of IFN gamma receptor expression and complete receptor loss were independently predictive of prognosis on multivariate analysis. There was no correlation between receptor status and any of the standard clinicopathologic variables.
Loss of IFN gamma receptor independently predicts poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Loss of receptor expression may be responsible for the limited success in the therapeutic use of IFN gamma in ovarian cancer trials and highlights a subgroup of high expressing IFN gamma receptor tumors which are more likely to be susceptible to such treatments.
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ABSTRACT: The human activating immune receptor, NKG2D, binds to a diverse array of cellular ligands of the MIC and unique long 16 (UL16)-binding protein (ULBP)/retinoic acid early transcript (RAET) family. NKG2D is thought to participate in anticancer immune responses. By using tissue microarrays representing over 300 patients with defined clinicopathological factors, we present the first comprehensive screen of the expression of all NKG2D ligands in primary ovarian cancers. NKG2D ligands were expressed by the majority of tumors; however, the level of expression varied considerably. By categorizing each tumor as having negative, low or high expression, it was shown that high expression of several NKG2D ligands is inversely correlated with disease survival. Patients whose tumors had high expression of RAET1E (p = 0.037), ULBP1 (p = 0.036) and ULBP3 (p = 0.004) surviving a median of 11, 14 and 11 months, respectively, compared with disease-specific survival of 29, 30 and 25 months in patients whose tumors showed no expression of these ligands. These results contrast with previous findings showing that high level NKG2D ligand expression is associated with good prognosis in colorectal cancer and suggest a fundamental difference in the involvement of NKG2D-mediated immunity in these two types of cancer. By using multivariate analysis, the factors retaining independent prognostic significance were International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stage (p < 0.001), presence of residual disease (p = 0.003), ULBP2 (p = 0.042) and RAET1E (p = 0.030).International Journal of Cancer 09/2010; 127(6):1412-20. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) often has a poor prognosis because of late presentation, lack of sensitivity and specificity of screening modalities and the development of chemoresistance. New targeted therapy is required if survival in these cases is to improve. The profile of E-, P- and N-cadherins in ovarian cancer and its association with survival remain poorly understood. Reduced expression of E-cadherin in prostate cancer associated with increase in the expression of N- and P-cadherins is described as cadherin switch. We hypothesised that there is a switch in the expression of cadherins that regulates the behaviour of HGSC and possibly its outcome. To identify the stages of the cadherin switch in HGSC, we studied the immunoexpression of E-, P- and N-cadherins in a cohort of 177 cases of HGSC. High expression of P-cadherin was associated with poor patient survival and was significantly higher in stage 2 disease when compared with stage 1 and stage 3 disease (P = 0.033). In contrast, loss of E-cadherin was observed in stage 3 HGSC when compared with other stages (P = 0.050). E-, P- and N- cadherin expressions were significantly associated with disease outcome when assessed individually and in various combinations with an interesting profile. Our results indicate that the cadherin switch alters through progression of HGSC. The profile of combined cadherin expressions in association with survival raises expectations in targeted therapy.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 04/2011; 459(1):21-9. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among gynecologic malignancies ovarian cancer is the deadliest and most difficult to detect at early stages. As ovarian tumors have long latency and are relatively more frequent in postmenopausal women, revealing chronological changes in model systems might help in the discovery of novel molecular targets and diagnostic biomarkers for disease detection and management. Follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mice with early and sustained sex steroid hormone disharmony develop various age-dependent ovarian abnormalities including increased incidence ovarian tumors in complete absence of ovulation. These mutants show various tumor cell types including those related to ovarian surface epithelium around 12-15 months of age. To explore why the FORKO mice develop ovarian tumors later in life, we assessed global gene expression changes during the pre-tumor period (at 8 months). Age-matched wild-type and FORKO mice were compared to gain a comprehensive view of genes that are misregulated, even before overt tumors appear in mutants. Applying a conservative 2-fold change to detect changes, our study identified 476 genes (338 upregulated and 138 downregulated) to be altered between 8-month-old FORKO and wild-type ovaries. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), we found highly significant alterations in five functional networks in pre-tumor stage FORKO ovaries. Notably, the top network to change in 8-month-old FORKO ovaries was associated with functions implicated in immune system development and function. We selected 9 immune related genes that are reportedly altered in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) in women and confirmed their expression and chronology of changes in FORKO ovaries before and after tumor development. Our data indicate that immune surveillance mechanisms are compromised with in a 4-month window of tumorigenic alterations. In addition, expression of previously unrecognized genes misregulated in the dysfunctional FORKO ovaries suggests mechanisms not yet appreciated to date. We propose that a better understanding of genes that change before overt tumors develop could provide useful insights into ovarian carcinogenesis and open the door to additional new targets for treating ovarian cancers.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 11/2010; 329(1-2):37-46. · 4.04 Impact Factor