Article

Ethics of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 08/2007; 298(3):285; author reply 285-6. DOI: 10.1001/jama.298.3.285-a
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence is lacking that a dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in total fat can influence breast cancer recurrence or survival. To assess whether a major increase in vegetable, fruit, and fiber intake and a decrease in dietary fat intake reduces the risk of recurrent and new primary breast cancer and all-cause mortality among women with previously treated early stage breast cancer. Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial of dietary change in 3088 women previously treated for early stage breast cancer who were 18 to 70 years old at diagnosis. Women were enrolled between 1995 and 2000 and followed up through June 1, 2006. The intervention group (n = 1537) was randomly assigned to receive a telephone counseling program supplemented with cooking classes and newsletters that promoted daily targets of 5 vegetable servings plus 16 oz of vegetable juice; 3 fruit servings; 30 g of fiber; and 15% to 20% of energy intake from fat. The comparison group (n = 1551) was provided with print materials describing the "5-A-Day" dietary guidelines. Invasive breast cancer event (recurrence or new primary) or death from any cause. From comparable dietary patterns at baseline, a conservative imputation analysis showed that the intervention group achieved and maintained the following statistically significant differences vs the comparison group through 4 years: servings of vegetables, +65%; fruit, +25%; fiber, +30%, and energy intake from fat, -13%. Plasma carotenoid concentrations validated changes in fruit and vegetable intake. Throughout the study, women in both groups received similar clinical care. Over the mean 7.3-year follow-up, 256 women in the intervention group (16.7%) vs 262 in the comparison group (16.9%) experienced an invasive breast cancer event (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.14; P = .63), and 155 intervention group women (10.1%) vs 160 comparison group women (10.3%) died (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.15; P = .43). No significant interactions were observed between diet group and baseline demographics, characteristics of the original tumor, baseline dietary pattern, or breast cancer treatment. Among survivors of early stage breast cancer, adoption of a diet that was very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat did not reduce additional breast cancer events or mortality during a 7.3-year follow-up period. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003787.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2007; 298(3):289-98. DOI:10.1001/jama.298.3.289 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the result of the autoimmune response against pancreatic insulin producing beta cells. This autoimmune response begins months or even years before the first presentation of signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and at the time of clinical diagnosis near 30% of beta-cell mass still remains. In daily clinical practice, the main therapeutic option for T1DM is multiple subcutaneous insulin injections that are shown to promote tight glucose control and reduce much of diabetic chronic complications, especially microvascular complications. Another important aspect related to long-term complications of diabetes is that patients with initially larger beta-cell mass suffer less microvascular complications and less hypoglycemic events than those patients with small beta-cell mass. In face of this, beta-cell preservation is another important target in the management of type 1 diabetes and its related complications. For many years, various immunomodulatory regimens were tested aiming at blocking autoimmunity against beta-cell mass and at promoting beta-cell preservation, mainly in secondary prevention trials. In this review, we summarize some of the most important studies involving beta-cell preservation by immunomodulation and discuss our preliminary data on autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly-diagnosed T1DM.
    Autoimmunity 11/2008; 41(8):666-72. DOI:10.1080/08916930802200208 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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