The c-Myc protein is a member of the basic region/helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper (bHLHZip) transcription factor family, which is implicated in regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in multiple cell types. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the proto-oncogene c-myc in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) during postnatal development.
We have generated a conditional mouse model that allows us to inactivate c-myc in bone marrow (BM) in an inducible fashion.
We show that conditional inactivation of c-Myc in BM severely impairs HSC differentiation, leading to a striking decrease in the number of lymphoid and myeloid cells. c-Myc deletion in BM causes substantial accumulation of a Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(-) cell population expressing high levels of the cell-cycle inhibitor p21, whose origin and function are otherwise poorly characterized. In vivo inactivation of p21 and c-Myc normalizes Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(-) cell numbers and restores normal proliferation. The potential origin and function of these cells are discussed.
c-Myc plays a role in HSC maintenance and differentiation and might be regulating generation of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(-) through the cell-cycle regulator p21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MYC is one of the most frequently deregulated oncogenes in human malignancies. It encodes a leucine zipper transcription factor that modulates a broad spectrum of cellular genes responsible for enhancing cell proliferation, cellular metabolism, growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, genomic instability, stem cell self-renewal and reduced differentiation. MYC functions predominantly as an amplifier of expression of already active genes, potentiating the pre-existing transcriptional program, although it can also repress certain transcriptional targets. In mouse models, MYC induces lymphomas, but requires cooperation with other lesions, including inactivation of the p53 pathway, structural alterations of BCL2 family members, or increased PI3K activity. In human B-cell tumors, MYC rearrangements involving the 8q24 region and immunoglobulin heavy or light genes are a hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL), but can also occur in other lymphoid malignancies, that include diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma (BCLU), plasma cell myeloma (PCM), mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and plasmablastic lymphoma. For non-BL lymphoid malignancies, MYC fusions represent secondary genetic events and exist in the context of complex karyotypes. Regardless of the mechanism deregulating MYC, lymphomas over-expressing MYC are addicted to this oncogene, highlighting the potential clinical utility of MYC targeting strategies. Several promising approaches for pharmaceutical intervention have been suggested which are now in preclinical or clinical development. Herein, we therefore review the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms associated with MYC deregulation in human B-cell lymphomas and their implications for therapies targeting MYC.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 12/2014; 1846(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.08.006 · 7.85 Impact Factor
"Similarly, Wg, and the BMPF1 ortholog, Dlp, are modulated by Dpp signaling and are required for hematopoiesis (Figure 2A) . Thus, many parallels exist between mammalian and Drosophila hematopoietic niches, and given the role of Myc in controlling development of the HSC lineage [77,78] and leukemia [55,56,57] it will be of interest to investigate potential roles for dMyc in Drosophila hematopoiesis in the future. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal growth requires coordination of cell growth and cell cycle progression with developmental signaling. Loss of cell cycle control is extremely detrimental, with reduced cycles leading to impaired organ growth and excessive proliferation, potentially resulting in tissue overgrowth and driving tumour initiation. Due to the high level of conservation between the cell cycle machinery of Drosophila and humans, the appeal of the fly model continues to be the means with which we can use sophisticated genetics to provide novel insights into mammalian growth and cell cycle control. Over the last decade, there have been major additions to the genetic toolbox to study development in Drosophila. Here we discuss some of the approaches available to investigate the potent growth and cell cycle properties of the Drosophila counterparts of prominent cancer genes, with a focus on the c-Myc oncoprotein and the tumour suppressor protein FIR (Hfp in flies), which behaves as a transcriptional repressor of c-Myc.
"Resting cells normally express low levels of c-MYC, but expression of this immediate/early response gene is dramatically increased upon exposure to growth factors , , . Moreover, c-MYC plays essential roles in hematopoietic stem cell function and survival and in lymphoid compartment homeostasis , , , , , . Recent evidence indicates that c-MYC is induced in human macrophages during alternative activation in vitro, and controls the expression of around 50% of alternative-specific markers, suggesting a role in macrophage polarization . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1α) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy.
PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45399. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045399 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Kristin Mattsson, Emma Honkaniemi, Gisela Barbany, Britt Gustafsson
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