Test of the paired-flash electroretinographic method in mice lacking b-waves.
ABSTRACT Previous studies of rod photoreceptors in vivo have employed a paired-flash electroretinographic (ERG) technique to determine rod response properties. To test whether absence versus presence of the ERG b-wave affects the photoreceptor response derived by the paired-flash method, we examined paired-flash-derived responses obtained from nob mice, a mutant strain with a defect in signal transduction between photoreceptors and ON bipolar cells that causes a lack of the b-wave. Normal littermates of the nob mice served as controls. The normalized amplitude-intensity relation of the derived response determined in nob mice at the near-peak time of 86 ms was similar to that determined for the controls. The full time course of the derived rod response was obtained for test flash strengths ranging from 0.11 to 17.38 scotopic cd s m(-2) (sc cd s m(-2)). Time-course data obtained from nob and control mice exhibited significant but generally modest differences. With saturating test flash strengths, half-recovery times for the derived response of nob versus control mice differed by approximately 60 ms or less about the combined (nob and control) average respective values. Time course data also were obtained before versus after intravitreal injection of L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB) (which blocks transmission from photoreceptors to depolarizing bipolar cells) and of cis 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid (PDA) (which blocks transmission to OFF bipolar cells, and to horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells). Neither APB nor PDA substantially affected derived responses obtained from nob or control mice. The results provide quantitative information on the effect of b-wave removal on the paired-flash-derived response in mouse. They argue against a substantial skewing effect of the b-wave on the paired-flash-derived response obtained in normal mice and are consistent with the notion that, to good approximation, this derived response represents the isolated flash response of the photoreceptors in both nob and normal mice.
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ABSTRACT: The a-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) reflects the response of photoreceptors to light, but what determines the exact waveform of the recorded voltage is not entirely understood. We have now simulated the trans-retinal voltage generated by the photocurrent of dark-adapted mammalian rods, using an electrical model based on the in vitro measurements of Hagins et al. (1970) and Arden (1976) in rat retinas. Our simulations indicate that in addition to the voltage produced by extracellular flow of photocurrent from rod outer to inner segments, a substantial fraction of the recorded a-wave is generated by current that flows in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) to hyperpolarize the rod axon and synaptic terminal. This current includes a transient capacitive component that contributes an initial negative "nose" to the trans-retinal voltage when the stimulus is strong. Recordings in various species of the a-wave, including the peak and initial recovery towards the baseline, are consistent with simulations showing an initial transient primarily related to capacitive currents in the ONL. Existence of these capacitive currents can explain why there is always a substantial residual transient a-wave when post-receptoral responses are pharmacologically inactivated in rodents and nonhuman primates, or severely genetically compromised in humans (e.g. complete congenital stationary night blindness) and nob mice. Our simulations and analysis of ERGs indicate that the timing of the leading edge and peak of dark-adapted a-waves evoked by strong stimuli could be used in a simple way to estimate rod sensitivity.Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 12/2013; · 9.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the amplification and kinetics of murine rod photoresponses by recording ERG flash responses in vivo and ex vivo from the same retina. We also aimed to evaluate the two available methods for isolating the rod signal from the ERG flash response, that is, pharmacology and paired flash method on the isolated retina. Dark-adapted ERG responses to full-field flashes of green light were recorded from anesthetized (ketamine/xylazine) C57BL/6N mice. ERG flash responses to homogenous light stimuli arriving from the photoreceptor side were then recorded transretinally from the same retinas, isolated and perfused with Ringer's or Ames' solution at 37°C. The responses were analyzed to determine the a-wave kinetics as well as the estimated flash sensitivity and kinetics of the full rod responses derived with the paired flash protocol. The analysis was complemented with pharmacologic blockade of glutamatergic transmission in the isolated retina. The a-waves were of comparable size, sensitivity and kinetics in vivo and in the isolated retina, but the onset of the b-wave was delayed in the isolated retina. The Lamb-Pugh activation constants determined for the a-waves were similar in both preparations. The kinetics of the derived photoreceptor responses were similar in both conditions, although the responses were consistently slightly slower ex vivo. This was not explicable as a direct effect of ketamine or xylazine on the photoreceptors or as their indirect effect through hyperglycemia, as tested on the isolated retina. Through comparison to the corneal ERG, the transretinal ERG is a valuable tool for assaying the physiologic state of isolated retinal tissue. The rod photoreceptor responses of the intact isolated retina correspond well to those recorded in vivo. The origin of their faster kinetics compared to single cell recordings remains to be determined.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 06/2012; 53(9):5653-64. · 3.43 Impact Factor
Article: Mouse b-wave mutants.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The b-wave is a major component of the electroretinogram that reflects the activity of depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs). The b-wave is used diagnostically to identify patients with defects in DBC signaling or in transmission from photoreceptors to DBCs. In mouse models, an abnormal b-wave has been used to demonstrate a critical role of a particular protein in the release of glutamate from photoreceptor terminals, in establishing the structure of the photoreceptor-to-DBC synapse, in DBC signal transduction, and also in DBC development, survival, or metabolic support. The purpose of this review is to summarize these models and how they have advanced our understanding of outer retinal function.Documenta Ophthalmologica 01/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor