Prevalence and management of treatment-resistant depression.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 02/2007; 68 Suppl 8:17-25.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a major public health problem in terms of its prevalence and in terms of individual suffering and cost to society. Best estimates indicate 12-month prevalence rates of approximately 3% for Stage 1 TRD (failure to respond to 1 adequate trial of an antidepressant) and approximately 2% for Stage 2 TRD (failure to respond to 2 adequate trials). The current article provides a brief review of the definitions, prevalence, and various treatment options for TRD, including switching, augmentation, and combination therapies and use of nonpharmacologic treatments. Given the public health importance of TRD, the relative absence of adequately powered, double-blind trials is striking.

Download full-text


Available from: Charles B Nemeroff, Feb 14, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Co-occurrence of major depressive (MDD) and alcohol use disorders (AUD) is frequent, causing more burden than each disorder separately. Since the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is critically involved in both mood and reward and dysfunctional in both conditions, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dTMS stimulation of bilateral DLPFC with left prevalence in patients with MDD with or without concomitant AUD. Methods: Twelve MDD patients and 11 with concomitant MDD and AUD (MDD+AUD) received 20 dTMS sessions. Clinical status was assessed through the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions severity scale (CGIs), craving through the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) in MDD+AUD, and functioning with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in sociodemographic (age, sex, years of education and duration of illness) and baseline clinical characteristics, including scores on assessment scales. Per cent drops on HDRS and CGIs scores at the end of the sessions were respectively 62.6% and 78.2% for MDD+AUD, and 55.2% and 67.1% for MDD (p<0.001). HDRS, CGIs and GAF scores remained significantly improved after the 6-month follow-up. HDRS scores dropped significantly earlier in MDD+AUD than in MDD. Conclusions: High frequency bilateral DLPFC dTMS with left preference was well tolerated and effective in patients with MDD, with or without AUD. The antidepressant effect of dTMS is not affected by alcohol abuse in patients with depressive episodes. The potential use of dTMS for mood modulation as an adjunct to treatment in patients with a depressive episode, with or without alcohol abuse, deserves further investigation.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; 174. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.015 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Conventional rTMS protocols for major depression commonly employ stimulation sessions lasting >30 min. However, recent studies have sought to improve costs, capacities, and outcomes by employing briefer protocols such as theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Objective: To compare safety, effectiveness, and outcome predictors for DMPFC-rTMS with 10 Hz (30 min) versus iTBS (6 min) protocols, in a large, naturalistic, retrospective case series. Methods: A chart review identified 185 patients with a medication-resistant major depressive episode who underwent 20-30 sessions of DMPFC-rTMS (10 Hz, n = 98; iTBS, n = 87) at a single Canadian clinic from 2011 to 2014. Results: Clinical characteristics of 10 Hz and iTBS patients did not differ prior to treatment, aside from significantly higher age in iTBS patients. A total 7912 runs of DMPFC-rTMS (10 Hz, 4274; iTBS, 3638) were administered, without any seizures or other serious adverse events, and no significant differences in rates of premature discontinuation between groups. Dichotomous outcomes did not differ significantly between groups (Response/remission rates: Beck Depression Inventory-II: 10 Hz, 40.6%/29.2%; iTBS, 43.0%/31.0%. 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: 10 Hz, 50.6%/38.5%; iTBS, 48.5%/27.9%). On continuous outcomes, there was no significant difference between groups in pre-treatment or post-treatment scores, or percent improvement on either measure. Mixed-effects modeling revealed no significant group-by-time interaction on either measure. Conclusions: Both 10 Hz and iTBS DMPFC-rTMS appear safe and tolerable at 120% resting motor threshold. The effectiveness of 6 min iTBS and 30 min 10 Hz protocols appears comparable. Randomized trials comparing 10 Hz to iTBS may be warranted. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Brain Stimulation 11/2014; 8(2). DOI:10.1016/j.brs.2014.11.002 · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Intensified repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may result in fast clinical responses in treatment resistant depression (TRD). In these kinds of patients, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) functional connectivity (FC) seems to be consistently disturbed. So far, no de novo data on the relationship between sgACC FC changes and clinical efficacy of accelerated rTMS were available. Methods. Twenty unipolar TRD patients, all at least stage III treatment resistant, were recruited in a randomized sham-controlled crossover high-frequency (HF)-rTMS treatment study. Resting-state (rs) functional MRI scans were collected at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results. HF-rTMS responders showed significantly stronger resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) anti-correlation between the sgACC and parts of the left superior medial prefrontal cortex. After successful treatment an inverted relative strength of the anti-correlations was observed in the perigenual prefrontal cortex (pgPFC). No effects on sgACC rsFC were observed in non-responders. Conclusions. Strong rsFC anti-correlation between the sgACC and parts of the left prefrontal cortex could be indicative of a beneficial outcome. Accelerated HF-rTMS treatment designs have the potential to acutely adjust deregulated sgACC neuronal networks in TRD patients.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 01/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.3109/15622975.2013.872295 · 4.23 Impact Factor