Polymorphisms in PTGS1, PTGS2 and IL-10 do not influence colorectal adenoma recurrence in the context of a randomized aspirin intervention trial.
ABSTRACT Regular use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reduces both the development of colorectal neoplasia and recurrence of colorectal adenoma (CRA). Modulation of the effects of aspirin by genetic factors has been reported, potentially allowing targeting of treatment to individuals most likely to gain benefit. Prostaglandin H synthase 1 (PTGS1) and PTGS2 are key enzymes in prostaglandin synthesis and are inhibited by aspirin, whilst interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important antiinflammatory cytokine. We investigated whether functional genetic polymorphisms in the PTGS1, PTGS2 and IL-10 genes influence CRA recurrence in individuals participating in a randomized aspirin intervention trial. DNA was available for genotyping from 546 patients who received aspirin (300 mg daily) or placebo for a mean 41-months' duration. Homozygote carriers of variant alleles for the PTGS1 50C>T, PTGS2 -765G>C and IL-10 -592C>A polymorphisms did not have a significantly altered risk of CRA recurrence (relative risk [RR]=0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-6.07, RR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.66-2.62 and RR=1.24; 95% CI: 0.74-2.07, respectively). There were also no significant interactions between aspirin intervention and genotype in determining recurrence risk. These data indicate that these polymorphisms are unlikely to influence CRA recurrence and cannot be used to identify individuals who derive benefit from aspirin intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in humans suggest that regular aspirin use may decrease the risk of colorectal adenomas, the precursors to most colorectal cancers. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial to determine the effect of aspirin on the incidence of colorectal adenomas. We randomly assigned 635 patients with previous colorectal cancer to receive either 325 mg of aspirin per day or placebo. We determined the proportion of patients with adenomas, the number of recurrent adenomas, and the time to the development of adenoma between randomization and subsequent colonoscopic examinations. Relative risks were adjusted for age, sex, cancer stage, the number of colonoscopic examinations, and the time to a first colonoscopy. The study was terminated early by an independent data and safety monitoring board when statistically significant results were reported during a planned interim analysis. A total of 517 randomized patients had at least one colonoscopic examination a median of 12.8 months after randomization. One or more adenomas were found in 17 percent of patients in the aspirin group and 27 percent of patients in the placebo group (P=0.004). The mean (+/-SD) number of adenomas was lower in the aspirin group than the placebo group (0.30+/-0.87 vs. 0.49+/-0.99, P=0.003 by the Wilcoxon test). The adjusted relative risk of any recurrent adenoma in the aspirin group, as compared with the placebo group, was 0.65 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.91). The time to the detection of a first adenoma was longer in the aspirin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio for the detection of a new polyp, 0.64; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.94; P=0.022). Daily use of aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of colorectal adenomas in patients with previous colorectal cancer.New England Journal of Medicine 04/2003; 348(10):883-90. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laboratory and epidemiologic data suggest that aspirin has an antineoplastic effect in the large bowel. We performed a randomized, double-blind trial of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal adenomas. We randomly assigned 1121 patients with a recent history of histologically documented adenomas to receive placebo (372 patients), 81 mg of aspirin (377 patients), or 325 mg of aspirin (372 patients) daily. According to the protocol, follow-up colonoscopy was to be performed approximately three years after the qualifying endoscopy. We compared the groups with respect to the risk of one or more neoplasms (adenomas or colorectal cancer) at least one year after randomization using generalized linear models to compute risk ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals. Reported adherence to study medications and avoidance of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were excellent. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed at least one year after randomization in 1084 patients (97 percent). The incidence of one or more adenomas was 47 percent in the placebo group, 38 percent in the group given 81 mg of aspirin per day, and 45 percent in the group given 325 mg of aspirin per day (global P=0.04). Unadjusted relative risks of any adenoma (as compared with the placebo group) were 0.81 in the 81-mg group (95 percent confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.96) and 0.96 in the 325-mg group (95 percent confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.13). For advanced neoplasms (adenomas measuring at least 1 cm in diameter or with tubulovillous or villous features, severe dysplasia, or invasive cancer), the respective relative risks were 0.59 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.92) and 0.83 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.23). Low-dose aspirin has a moderate chemopreventive effect on adenomas in the large bowel.New England Journal of Medicine 04/2003; 348(10):891-9. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes may be important in the maintenance and progression of colorectal cancer. It is possible that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in inflammatory genes may play a role in chronic colonic inflammation and development of colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, common variants in cytokine genes may modify the anti-inflammatory effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the prevention of colorectal cancer. We examined the association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and risk of recurrent adenomas among 1,723 participants in the Polyp Prevention Trial. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the association between genotype, NSAID use, and risk of adenoma recurrence. Cytokine gene polymorphisms were not statistically significantly associated with risk of adenoma recurrence in our study. We observed statistically significant interactions between NSAID use, IL-10 -1082 G>A genotype, and risk of adenoma recurrence (P = 0.01) and multiple adenoma recurrence (P = 0.01). Carriers of the IL-10 -1082 G>A variant allele who were non-NSAID users had a statistically significant decreased risk of multiple adenoma recurrence (OR, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.77) as well as a nonsignificant 30% decreased risk of any adenoma recurrence. In contrast, NSAID users who were carriers of the IL-10 -1082 G>A variant allele were at an increased risk of any adenoma recurrence (OR, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.43). These findings suggest that individuals who are carriers of the IL-10 -1082 G>A variant allele may not benefit from the chemoprotective effect of NSAIDs on adenoma polyp recurrence.Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 04/2006; 15(3):494-501. · 4.56 Impact Factor