Diagnosis and management of medical problems in adults with Williams-Beuren syndrome
ABSTRACT Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multi-system disorder that requires ongoing management by a primary care physician familiar with the natural history and common medical problems associated with the condition. Some abnormalities are unique to WBS, such as the elastin arteriopathy that often manifests as supravalvar aortic stenosis and hypertension. Still other features, such as diverticulosis, are seen in the general population but tend to present earlier in WBS. Life long monitoring of the cardiovascular and endocrine systems is essential to the clinical management of individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Constipation should be aggressively managed, and symptoms of abdominal pain should prompt an evaluation for diverticulosis/diverticulitis. While the mean IQ of WBS is in the mild mental retardation range, difficulties with attention and anxiety are more likely to negatively impact independent functioning in the adult with WBS. There is no evidence for decline in cognitive ability over time, but adaptive functioning may be improved with treatment of anxiety by both behavior and medical modalities.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep and related maternal beliefs were assessed in a narrow age range of 18 children with Williams syndrome (WS) and 18 typically developing (TD) children. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterised by a complex physical, cognitive and behavioural phenotype. High prevalence of sleep difficulties in older children and adults with WS have been reported. Parents completed 6 questionnaires: the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire, Infant Sleep Vignettes Interpretation Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index of Parents, Child Behaviour Checklist, MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for Infants - Words and Gestures, and the Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory. Compared to TD children, those with WS had shorter night sleep, more night wakings and wakefulness according to parental report. Regression analyses revealed that a proportion of the variance in language development scores in WS children could be explained by night sleep duration. Compared to control parents, the mothers of the WS group were more likely to describe their child's sleep as problematic and had higher rates of involvement with child sleep, yet they had a lesser tendency to interpret sleep problems as signs of distress and a greater tendency to emphasise limit setting. Approximately half of both groups of mothers experienced poor sleep quality. This was also related to maternal mood, and night wakefulness in the children with WS. This is the first study to quantify sleep difficulties in young children with WS in a narrow age range using maternal report. The possible negative effects on maternal sleep and mood, and the link between night sleep and language development in young children with WS, requires further detailed investigation.Research in developmental disabilities 09/2013; 34(11):3988-3996. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.08.018 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Elastin haploinsufficiency is responsible for a significant portion of the Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype including hoarse voice, supravalvar aortic stenosis (SVAS), hernias, diverticuli of bowel and bladder, soft skin, and joint abnormalities. All of the connective tissue signs and symptoms are variable in the WS population, but few factors other than age and gender are known to influence the phenotype. We examined a cohort of 205 individuals with WS for mutations in SERPINA1, the gene that encodes alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the inhibitor of elastase. Individuals with classic WS deletions and SERPINA1 genotypes PiMS or PiMZ were more likely than those with a SERPINA1 PiMM genotype to have joint dislocation or scoliosis. However, carrier status for AAT deficiency was not correlated with presence of inguinal hernia or with presence or severity of SVAS. These findings suggest that genes important in elastin metabolism are candidates for variability in the connective tissue abnormalities in WS.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Seminars in Medical Genetics 05/2010; 154C(2):299-306. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.30265 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular abnormalities, especially structural congenital heart defects, commonly occur in malformation syndromes and genetic disorders. Individuals with syndromes comprise a significant proportion of those affected with selected congenital heart defects such as complete atrioventricular canal, interrupted arch type B, supravalvar aortic stenosis, and pulmonary stenosis. As these individuals age, they contribute to the growing population of adults with special health care needs. Although most will require longterm cardiology follow-up, primary care providers, geneticists, and other specialists should be aware of (1) the type and frequency of cardiovascular abnormalities, (2) the range of clinical outcomes, and (3) guidelines for prospective management and treatment of potential complications. This article reviews fundamental genetic, cardiac, medical, and reproductive issues associated with common genetic syndromes that are frequently associated with a cardiovascular abnormality. New data are also provided about the cardiac status of adults with a 22q11.2 deletion and with Down syndrome.Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 08/2008; 10(7):469-94. DOI:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181772111 · 6.44 Impact Factor