Chemerin Is a Novel Adipokine Associated with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Research Unit, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Geelong, Victoria 3217, Australia.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.5). 11/2007; 148(10):4687-94. DOI: 10.1210/en.2007-0175
Source: PubMed


Soluble protein hormones are key regulators of a number of metabolic processes, including food intake and insulin sensitivity. We have used a signal sequence trap to identify genes that encode secreted or membrane-bound proteins in Psammomys obesus, an animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using this signal sequence trap, we identified the chemokine chemerin as being a novel adipokine. Gene expression of chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), was significantly higher in adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic P. obesus compared with lean, normoglycemic P. obesus. Fractionation of P. obesus adipose tissue confirmed that chemerin was predominantly expressed in adipocytes, whereas CMKLR1 was expressed in both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells of adipose tissue. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, chemerin was markedly induced during differentiation, whereas CMKLR1 was down-regulated during differentiation. Serum chemerin levels were measured by ELISA in human plasma samples from 114 subjects with T2D and 142 normal glucose tolerant controls. Plasma chemerin levels were not significantly different between subjects with T2D and normal controls. However, in normal glucose tolerant subjects, plasma chemerin levels were significantly associated with body mass index, circulating triglycerides, and blood pressure. Here we report, for the first time, that chemerin is an adipokine, and circulating levels of chemerin are associated with several key aspects of metabolic syndrome.

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Available from: Greg R Collier, Oct 05, 2015
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    • ", Fatima et al. [21], Bozaoglu et al. [9], Bozaoglu et al. [10] Androgen sensitivity High expression in visceral adipose tissue in men and women with PCOS "
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of several adipokines with diverse activities and their involvement in regulation of various pathophysiological functions of human body has challenged the researchers. In the family of adipokine, chemerin is a novel and unique addition. Ever since the first report on chemerin as a chemo- attractant protein, there are numerous studies showing a multitasking capacity of chemerin in the maintenance of homeostasis, for the activation of natural killer cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in both innate and adaptive immunity. Its diversity ranges from generalized inflammatory cascades to being explicitly involved in the manifestation of arthritis psoriasis, and peritonitis. Its association with certain cancerous tissue may render it as a potential tumor marker. In present review, we aim to consolidate recent data of investigations on chemerin in context to functional characteristics with a special reference to its role as a metabolic signal in inflammation and non-metabolic syndromes.
    Peptides 09/2014; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2014.09.019 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    • "However, chemerin levels higher in hepatic vein blood samples than in systemic circulation indicate that it is synthesized and secreted by the liver [16]. In humans, chemerin mRNA was found to be highly expressed not only in white adipose tissue, but also in liver and lungs [7]. Chemerin exerts its functions by binding the G proteincoupled receptor, chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1) (also known as chemerin receptor 23 (ChemR23)) [2, 17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Chemerin seems to be involved in pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Hepatic expressions of chemerin and its receptor, chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1), in CHC have not been studied so far. Aim. To evaluate chemerin and CMKLR1 hepatic expression together with serum chemerin concentration in CHC patients and to assess their relationship with metabolic and histopathological abnormalities. Methods. The study included 63 nonobese CHC patients. Transcription of chemerin and CMKLR1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, while serum chemerin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Expression of chemerin and CMKLR1 was present in the liver of all CHC patients regardless of sex or age. This expression was not associated with necroinflammatory activity and steatosis grade, fibrosis stage, and metabolic abnormalities. There was a negative association between serum chemerin and chemerin hepatic expression (r = (-0.41), P = 0.006). Conclusion. The study for the first time confirmed a marked expression of chemerin and CMKLR1 in the liver of CHC patients. The study was performed using the homogenates of human liver tissue, so it is not possible to define whether hepatocytes or other cell types which are abundantly represented in the liver constitute the main source of chemerin and CMKLR1 mRNA.
    BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:517820. DOI:10.1155/2014/517820 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "For several adipokines (ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, clusterin, leptin, Nampt, resistin, GPX3), we identified a close relationship with parameters of obesity (BMI, waist circumference, body fat mass), but also inflammation (hsCrP). In accordance with that, associations with both body weight and inflammation have been reported for chemerin [31], [32], clusterin [33], leptin [11], Nampt [34], resistin [35]. Since ANGPTL3, DLL1 and GPX3 are found in the same cluster, our data may stimulate further research characterizing the potential role of ANGPTL3, DLL1 and GPX3 in obesity, altered glucose metabolism and inflammation. "
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    ABSTRACT: In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67) and women (n = 74) with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1) body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin) or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin). In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91%) and specificity (76% versus 94%). Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99785. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099785 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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