Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is an alternative technique to ion pairing-reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) and classical RPLC for separation of alkylimidazolium room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Particularly, HILIC offers better retention and selectivity for short-chains RTILs imidazolium compounds. HILIC mechanisms were investigated by studying the influence of organic modifier content and salt concentration in the mobile phase. HILIC method was validated by quantifying 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (BMIM) degradation under gamma radiation at 2.5MGy. Development of separative reproducible analytical methods, including for low concentration, applicable to RTILs are today mandatory to improve RTILs chemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growing interest in ionic liquids (ILs) has resulted in an exponentially increasing production of analytical applications. The potential of ILs in chemistry is related to their unique properties as non-molecular solvents: a negligible vapor pressure associated to a high thermal stability. ILs found uses in different sub-disciplines of analytical chemistry. After drawing a rapid picture of the physicochemical properties of selected ILs, this review focuses on their use in separation techniques: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and electrophoretic methods (CE). In LC and CE, ILs are not used as pure solvents, but rather diluted in aqueous solutions. In this situation ILs are just salts. They are dual in nature. Too often the properties of the cations are taken as the properties of the IL itself. The lyotropic theory is recalled and the effects of a chaotropic anion are pointed out. Many results can be explained considering all ions present in the solution. Ion-pairing and ion-exchange mechanisms are always present, associated with hydrophobic interactions, when dealing with IL in diluted solutions. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods are also mainly employed for the control and monitoring of ILs. These methods are also considered. ILs will soon be produced on an industrial scale and it will be necessary to develop reliable analytical procedures for their analysis and control.
Journal of Chromatography A 04/2008; 1184(1-2):6-18. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2007.11.109 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review, method development for hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) is highlighted. HILIC is a chromatographic technique that uses aqueous-organic solvent mobile phases with a high organic-solvent fraction, and a hydrophilic stationary phase. It is mainly applied for the separation of polar and hydrophilic compounds. Method development, in general, can be done uni- or multivariately. In the univariate approach, the factors that are expected to potentially affect the separation of the compounds will be examined sequentially and one-at-a-time. All HILIC methods found in the literature were developed in this way. For these methods, the analytes, the considered factors, the selected responses, and the finally chosen experimental conditions are discussed in this review. Where examined, the method validation and the comparison with other analytical assay methods is also described. For the multivariate method-development approach, which is based on the use of experimental designs, only a possible strategy is presented, because of the lack of relevant publications in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) containing imidazolium cations and amino acid (AA) anions, were synthesized and applied as task-specific ionic liquids. A sensitive and fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was established for the quantitative analysis of 20 AAILs. Using ion pairing-reversed phase liquid chromatography technique, heptafluorobutyric acid was used as ion-pairing reagent to increase the retention of AAILs. Based on the zwitterionity of amino acid, this method was proposed to determine both the cation and the anion of AAILs simultaneously. The limit of detection of this method is down to 1-15ng/mL and the analysis time is less than 15min. According to the analytical data of seven selected AAILs, we found that the content of amino acid anion is always lower than that of butyl methyl imidazolium cation in AAILs. Moreover, the molar ratio of imidazolium cation to amino acid anion is dependent on the chemical property of the amino acid. These results supplied useful information on the interaction of imidazolium cation with acidic, basic, neutral and non-polar amino acids in AAILs.
Journal of Chromatography A 10/2008; 1208(1-2):175-81. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.08.090 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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